As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 1, 2017
Registration No. 333-
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
14201 Caliber Drive, Suite 300
Oklahoma City, OK 73134
(Address, including zip code and telephone number, including area code, of registrants principal executive offices)
Chief Financial Officer
Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.
14201 Caliber Drive, Suite 300
Oklahoma City, OK 73134
(Name, address, including zip code and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Seth R. Molay, P.C.
Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP
1700 Pacific Avenue, Suite 4100
Dallas, TX 75201
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If the only securities being registered on this form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐
If any securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒
If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the Commission) pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
If this form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer, smaller reporting company and emerging growth company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
|Large accelerated filer||☐||Accelerated filer||☐|
|Non-accelerated filer||☒ (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)||Smaller reporting company||☐|
|Emerging Growth Company||☒|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☒
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered(1)
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share
Total (Primary and Secondary)
|(1)||There is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of common stock as may be sold, from time to time, by Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. in a primary offering in such amounts as shall result in an aggregate offering price not to exceed $500,000,000.|
|(2)||With respect to the primary offering, the proposed maximum offering price per share is not specified as permitted by Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.|
|(3)||Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act. With respect to the primary offering, in no event will the aggregate initial offering price of shares of common stock offered from time to time pursuant to this Registration Statement exceed $500,000,000.|
|(4)||Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.|
|(5)||Represents an aggregate number of shares of common stock that may be offered from time to time by the selling stockholders named herein in a secondary offering. Pursuant to Rule 416(a) under the Securities Act, the number of shares of common stock being registered on behalf of the selling stockholders shall be adjusted to include any additional shares of common stock that may become issuable as a result of any common stock distribution, split, combination or similar transaction.|
|(6)||With respect to the shares of common stock that may be offered from time to time by the selling stockholders in a secondary offering in connection with this Registration Statement, the proposed maximum offering price per share and the proposed maximum aggregate offering price were estimated solely for purposes of calculating the registration fee, based on the average of the high and low prices for our common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 25, 2017, in accordance with Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.|
|(7)||Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(c) under the Securities Act.|
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We and the selling stockholders may not sell the securities described herein until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell such securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy such securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, Dated November 1, 2017.
Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.
This prospectus relates to:
|||up to $500,000,000 maximum offering price of shares of common stock to be offered by us from time to time in a primary offering; and|
|||up to 36,763,334 currently issued and outstanding shares of common stock to be offered from time to time by the selling stockholders named in this prospectus or in any supplement to this prospectus.|
We or the selling stockholders may from time to time, in one or more offerings, offer and sell these shares of common stock through ordinary brokerage transactions, directly to market makers or through any other means described in the section of this prospectus entitled Plan of Distribution , including through sales to underwriters or dealers (in which case this prospectus will be accompanied by a prospectus supplement listing any underwriters, the compensation to be received by the underwriters, and the total amount of money that we or the selling stockholders will receive in such sale after expenses of the offering are paid).
We or the selling stockholders may elect to sell all, a portion or none of the shares of common stock offered hereby. We or the selling stockholders will determine the prices and terms of the sales at the time of each offering made by us or them. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock by the selling stockholders.
This prospectus provides you with a general description of the common stock and the general manner in which we or the selling stockholders will offer the common stock. Each time we or the selling stockholders sell our common stock, to the extent required, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and all other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in our common stock. In making offers and sales pursuant to this prospectus, the selling stockholders may be deemed to be acting as underwriters, and their offers and sales may be deemed to be made indirectly on our behalf. For a more detailed discussion regarding the selling stockholders, please read Selling Stockholders .
Our common stock is listed on the on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol TUSK. The last reported sales price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 31, 2017 was $19.73 per share.
You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement carefully before you invest. You should also read the documents we refer to in the Where You Can Find More Information and Information Incorporated by Reference sections of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement.
We are an emerging growth company under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. Investing in our common stock involves risks. See Risk Factors beginning on page 2.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved the securities described herein or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is , 2017.
This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a shelf registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer and/or sell the common stock described in this prospectus, and the selling stockholders named in this prospectus or selling stockholders that may be identified in an applicable prospectus supplement may, from time to time, resell up to 36,763,334 shares of our common stock, in each case, in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the common stock we and/or selling stockholders may offer. Each time we or selling stockholders sell common stock, to the extent required, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. That prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. Before purchasing any of our common stock, you should carefully read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement under the headings Where You Can Find More Information and Information Incorporated by Reference .
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus and in any applicable prospectus supplement, including any information incorporated by reference. Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should not assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference is accurate at any date other than as of the date of each such document. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the date indicated on the cover page of such documents.
The distribution of this prospectus may be restricted by law in certain jurisdictions. You should inform yourself about and observe any of these restrictions. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer or solicitation by anyone in any jurisdiction in which the offer or solicitation is not authorized, or in which the person making the offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so, or to any person to whom it is unlawful to make the offer or solicitation.
When used in this prospectus or in any supplement to this prospectus, the terms Mammoth, the Company, we, our and us refer to Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires.
We have filed a registration statement with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, that registers the securities covered by this prospectus. The registration statement, including the exhibits attached thereto and other information incorporated by reference therein, contains additional relevant information about us. In addition, we file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements, information statements and other information with the SEC. You may read any materials we have filed with the SEC free of charge at the SECs Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. Copies of all or any part of these documents may be obtained from such office upon the payment of the fees prescribed by the SEC. The public may obtain information on the operation of the public reference room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the site is http://www.sec.gov. The registration statement, including all exhibits thereto and amendments thereof, has been filed electronically with the SEC.
You can also find our SEC filings on our website at www.mammothenergy.com. The information contained on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and does not constitute a part of this prospectus.
The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus the information we provide in other documents filed by us with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. Any statement contained in a document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus is automatically updated and superseded if information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, or information that we later file with the SEC, modifies and replaces this information. We incorporate by reference the following documents that we have filed with the SEC (except as indicated below with respect to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K):
|||our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on February 24, 2017;|
|||the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 28, 2017;|
|||our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the periods ended March 31, 2017 and June 30, 2017 filed with the SEC on May 15, 2017 and August 4, 2017, respectively;|
|||our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 10, 2017, March 24, 2017, March 29, 2017, May 31, 2017 (as amended by the Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on August 2, 2017), June 9, 2017 (as amended by the Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on August 2, 2017 (except for Exhibits 23.2 and 99.3, which were updated by Exhibits 23.2 and 99.2, respectively, included in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 27, 2017 and referenced below), June 12, 2017 and June 27, 2017 and two Current Reports on Form 8-K, each filed on October 27, 2017; and|
|||the description of our common stock contained in our Form 8-A filed with the SEC on October 13, 2016, including any amendment to that form that we may file in the future for the purpose of updating the description of our common stock.|
In addition, all documents filed by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (other than those furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or
Item 7.01 of Form 8-K, unless otherwise stated therein) (i) after the date of the initial registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement and (ii) after the date of this prospectus, in each case, will be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and to be a part of this prospectus from the dates of the filing of such documents. Pursuant to General Instruction B of Form 8-K, any information submitted under Item 2.02, Results of Operations and Financial Condition, or Item 7.01, Regulation FD Disclosure, of Form 8-K is not deemed to be filed for the purpose of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, and we are not subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act with respect to information submitted under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K. We are not incorporating by reference any information submitted under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K into any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or into this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated on such Form 8-K.
We hereby undertake to provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request of any such person, a copy of any or all of the information that has been incorporated by reference into this prospectus (excluding exhibits, unless the exhibits are specifically incorporated). You may request a copy of this prospectus or any of the incorporated documents at no charge to you by writing to Mark Layton, Chief Financial Officer, Mammoth Energy Services, Inc., 14201 Caliber Drive, Suite 300, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73134; telephone: (405) 608-6007.
Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement.
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, which may include statements about our:
|||planned acquisitions and future capital expenditures;|
|||ability to obtain permits and governmental approvals;|
|||estimates of our sand reserves;|
|||future operating results; and|
|||plans, objectives, expectations and intentions.|
All of these types of statements, other than statements of historical fact included in this prospectus, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements may be found in the Our Company , Risk Factors, Business and Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included, as applicable, in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q incorporated by reference herein and elsewhere in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as may, could, should, expect, plan, project, intend, anticipate, believe, estimate, predict, potential, pursue, target, seek, objective or continue, the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology.
The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are largely based on our expectations, which reflect estimates and assumptions made by our management. These estimates and assumptions reflect our best judgment based on currently known market conditions and other factors. Although we believe such estimates and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently uncertain and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that are beyond our control. In addition, our managements assumptions about future events may prove to be inaccurate. Our management cautions all readers that the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are not guarantees of future performance, and we cannot assure any reader that such statements will be realized or the forward-looking events and circumstances will occur. Actual results may differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements due to the many factors including those described under Risk Factors in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other filings we make with the SEC incorporated by reference herein and elsewhere in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. All forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or included in a document incorporated by reference herein or therein speak only as of the date hereof or thereof, respectively. We do not intend to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. These cautionary statements qualify all forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf.
We are an integrated, growth-oriented energy service company serving companies focused on the exploration and development of North American onshore unconventional oil and natural gas reserves and energy infrastructure. Our primary business objective is to grow our operations and create value for stockholders through organic opportunities and accretive acquisitions. Our suite of services includes pressure pumping services, well services, natural sand proppant services, contract land and directional drilling services and other energy services. Our pressure pumping services division provides hydraulic fracturing services. Our well services division provides pressure control services, flowback services and equipment rentals. Our natural sand proppant services division sells, distributes and produces proppant for hydraulic fracturing. Our contract land and directional drilling services division provides drilling rigs and crews for operators as well as rental equipment, such as mud motors and operational tools, for both vertical and horizontal drilling. Our other energy services division has historically provided housing, kitchen and dining, and recreational service facilities for oilfield workers located in remote areas away from readily available lodging and recently was expanded to include energy infrastructure services. We believe that the services we offer play a critical role in increasing the ultimate recovery and present value of production streams from unconventional resources. Our complementary suite of completion and production and drilling related services provides us with the opportunity to cross-sell our services and expand our customer base and geographic positioning.
We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the federal securities laws. For as long as we are an emerging growth company, we will not be required to comply with certain requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports. We intend to take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. For a description of the qualifications and other requirements applicable to emerging growth companies and certain elections that we have made due to our status as an emerging growth company, see Risk FactorsRisks Inherent to Our Common StockFor so long as we are an emerging growth company we will not be required to comply with certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors beginning on page 24 of this prospectus.
Our principal executive offices are located at 14201 Caliber Drive, Suite 300, Oklahoma City, OK 73134, and our telephone number at that address is (405) 608-6007. Our website address is www.mammothenergy.com . Information contained on our website does not constitute part of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement.
An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks and all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement before deciding to invest in our common stock. You should also consider similar information contained in any annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and other document filed by us with the SEC after the date of this prospectus before deciding to invest in our common stock. We will also include in any applicable prospectus supplement a description of other risk factors applicable to an offering contemplated by such prospectus supplement. Additional risks and uncertainties not known to us or that we view as immaterial may also impair our business operations. Any of these risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and could result in a loss of all or part of your investment.
Risks Related to Our Business and the Oil and Natural Gas Industry
Our business depends on the oil and natural gas industry and particularly on the level of exploration and production activity within the United States and Canada, and the ongoing volatility in prices for oil and natural gas has had, and continues to have, an adverse effect on our revenue, cash flows, profitability and growth.
Demand for most of our products and services depends substantially on the level of expenditures by companies in the oil and natural gas industry. The significant decline in oil and natural gas prices during 2015 continued during the first part of 2016 before seeing a rebound during the second half of 2016. The low commodity price environment caused many of our customers to reduce spending on drilling, completion and other production activities. Although the prices for oil and natural gas have recently stabilized, the industry conditions are dynamic and the continuation or a weakening of commodity prices from current levels may result in a material adverse impact on certain of our customers liquidity and financial position resulting in spending reductions, delays in the collection of amounts owing to us and similar impacts. These conditions have had and may continue to have an adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and it is difficult to predict how long the current commodity price environment will continue.
Many factors over which we have no control affect the supply of and demand for, and our customers willingness to explore, develop and produce oil and natural gas, and therefore, influence prices for our products and services, including:
|||the domestic and foreign supply of and demand for oil and natural gas;|
|||the level of prices, and expectations about future prices, of oil and natural gas;|
|||the level of global oil and natural gas exploration and production;|
|||the cost of exploring for, developing, producing and delivering oil and natural gas;|
|||the expected decline rates of current production;|
|||the price and quantity of foreign imports;|
|||political and economic conditions in oil producing countries, including the Middle East, Africa, South America and Russia;|
|||the ability of members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to agree to and maintain oil price and production controls;|
|||speculative trading in crude oil and natural gas derivative contracts;|
|||the level of consumer product demand;|
|||the discovery rates of new oil and natural gas reserves;|
|||contractions in the credit market;|
|||the strength or weakness of the U.S. dollar;|
|||available pipeline and other transportation capacity;|
|||the levels of oil and natural gas storage;|
|||weather conditions and other natural disasters;|
|||political instability in oil and natural gas producing countries;|
|||domestic and foreign tax policy;|
|||domestic and foreign governmental approvals and regulatory requirements and conditions;|
|||the continued threat of terrorism and the impact of military and other action, including military action in the Middle East;|
|||technical advances affecting energy consumption;|
|||the proximity and capacity of oil and natural gas pipelines and other transportation facilities;|
|||the price and availability of alternative fuels;|
|||the ability of oil and natural gas producers to raise equity capital and debt financing;|
|||merger and divestiture activity among oil and natural gas producers; and|
|||overall domestic and global economic conditions.|
These factors and the volatility of the energy markets make it extremely difficult to predict future oil and natural gas price movements with any certainty. Any of the above factors could impact the level of oil and natural gas exploration and production activity and could ultimately have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Further, future weakness in commodity prices could impact our business going forward, and we could encounter difficulties such as an inability to access needed capital on attractive terms or at all, recognizing asset impairment charges, an inability to meet financial ratios contained in our debt agreements, a need to reduce our capital spending and other similar impacts.
The cyclicality of the oil and natural gas industry may cause our operating results to fluctuate.
We derive our revenues primarily from companies in the oil and natural gas exploration and production industry, a historically cyclical industry with levels of activity that are significantly affected by the levels and volatility of oil and natural gas prices. We have, and may in the future, experience significant fluctuations in operating results as a result of the reactions of our customers to changes in oil and natural gas prices. For example, prolonged low commodity prices experienced by the oil and natural gas industry during 2015 and the first part of 2016, combined with adverse changes in the capital and credit markets, caused many exploration and production companies to reduce their capital budgets and drilling activity. This resulted in a significant decline in demand for oilfield services and adversely impacted the prices oilfield services companies could charge for their services. In addition, a majority of the service revenue we earn is based upon a charge for a relatively short period of time (e.g., an hour, a day, a week) for the actual period of time the service is provided to our customers. By contracting services on a short-term basis, we are exposed to the risks of a rapid reduction in market prices and utilization, with resulting volatility in our revenues.
If oil prices or natural gas prices remain at current levels or decline, the demand for our services could be adversely affected.
The demand for our services is primarily determined by current and anticipated oil and natural gas prices and the related general production spending and level of drilling activity in the areas in which we have
operations. Volatility or weakness in oil prices or natural gas prices (or the perception that oil prices or natural gas prices will decrease) affects the spending patterns of our customers and may result in the drilling of fewer new wells or lower production spending on existing wells. This, in turn, could result in lower demand for our services and may cause lower rates and lower utilization of our well service equipment. Any future decline in oil and gas prices could materially affect the demand for our services and our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Prices for oil and natural gas historically have been extremely volatile and are expected to continue to be volatile in the years to come. During 2016, West Texas Intermediate posted prices ranged from $26.19 to $54.01 per Bbl and the Henry Hub spot market price of natural gas ranged from $1.49 to $3.80 per MMBtu. During the first six months of 2017, West Texas Intermediate posted prices ranged from $42.48 to $54.48 per Bbl and the Henry Hub spot market price of natural gas ranged from $2.44 to $3.71 per MMBtu. On June 30, 2017, the West Texas Intermediate posted price for crude oil was $46.02 per Bbl and the Henry Hub spot market price of natural gas was $2.98 per MMBtu. If the prices of oil and natural gas decline from current levels, our operations, financial condition and level of expenditures may be materially and adversely affected.
Our business is difficult to evaluate because we have a limited operating history.
Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. was formed in June 2016, and did not conduct any material business operations prior to its initial public offering, or the IPO, which closed on October 19, 2016. Prior to the IPO, Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Mammoth Energy Partners LP, referred to as Mammoth Partners, which was originally formed in February 2014. Except as expressly noted otherwise, the historical financial information of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. and operational data for the periods prior to October 12, 2016, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus from our Annual Report on Form 10-K, is that of Mammoth Partners and its consolidated subsidiaries. These subsidiaries were formed or acquired between 2007 and 2016. As a result, there is only limited historical financial and operating information available upon which to base your evaluation of our performance.
Our customer base is concentrated and the loss of one or more of our significant customers, or their failure to pay the amounts they owe us, could cause our revenue to decline substantially.
Our top five customers accounted for approximately 78% and 80% of our revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2017 and the year ended December 31, 2016, respectively. Gulfport was our largest customer accounting for approximately 59% and 57%, respectively, of our revenue for these periods. It is likely that we will continue to derive a significant portion of our revenue from a relatively small number of customers in the future. If a major customer decided not to continue to use our services, our revenue would decline and our operating results and financial condition could be harmed. For example, effective January 1, 2016, we entered into an amendment to our master services agreement with Gulfport in which Gulfport suspended its use of our hydraulic fracturing services during the first quarter of 2016. As a result, there were no revenues attributable to these services from Gulfport during the first quarter of 2016 as compared to $25.8 million for the fourth quarter of 2015 and approximately $124.3 million during the year ended December 31, 2015. Under the amendment, the services that were suspended during the first quarter, and the related fees, were performed and paid for during the second and third quarters of 2016. We recognized revenues of $38.2 million and $35.4 million from Gulfport for these services during the second and third quarters of 2016, respectively, and recognized revenue of $72.8 million from Gulfport for these services during the six months ended June 30, 2017. In addition, we are subject to credit risk due to the concentration of our customer base. Any nonperformance by our counterparties, including their failure to pay the amounts they owe us on a timely basis or at all, either as a result of changes in financial and economic conditions or otherwise, could have an adverse impact on our operating results and could adversely affect our liquidity.
Our failure to receive payment for contract change orders or adequately recover on claims brought by us against customers related to payment terms and costs could materially and adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We have in the past brought, and may in the future bring, claims against our customers related to, among other things, the payment terms of our contracts and change orders relating to such contracts. These types of claims can occur due to, among other things, customer-caused delays or changes in project scope, both of which may result in additional costs. In some instances, these claims can be the subject of lengthy legal proceedings, and it is difficult to predict the timing and outcome of such proceedings. Our failure to promptly and adequately recover on these types of claims could have an adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
One of our energy services subsidiaries recently entered into a contract with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, or PREPA, which provides for payments to us of up to $200.0 million. PREPA is currently subject to pending bankruptcy proceeding. In the event that PREPA does not have or does not obtain the funds necessary to satisfy its payment obligations to our subsidiary under the contract or terminates the contract prior to the end of the contract term, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
On October 19, 2017, our energy services subsidiary Cobra Acquisitions LLC, or Cobra, and PREPA entered into an energy master services agreement for repairs to PREPAs electrical grid as a result of Hurricane Maria. The one-year contract provides for payments of up to $200.0 million, including an initial payment of $15.0 million. As of October 30, 2017, Cobra had entered into $30.6 million of commitments related to this contract and made aggregate payments, inclusive of prepayments and deposits, of $9.9 million with respect to these commitments. PREPA is currently subject to bankruptcy proceedings pending in the U.S. District Court for the District of Puerto Rico. As a result, PREPAs ability to meet its payment obligations under the contract will be largely dependent upon funding from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, or FEMA, or other sources. PREPAs contracting practices in connection with restoration and repair of PREPAs electrical grid in Puerto Rico, and the terms of certain of those contracts, have been subject to critical comment and are the subject of review and hearings by U.S. federal and Puerto Rican governmental entities. Recently, a contract for restoration and repair services entered into by PREPA with an unrelated third party was terminated by PREPA. In the event that PREPA does not have or does not obtain the funds necessary to satisfy its current obligations to Cobra under the contract or terminates the contract prior to the end of the contract term, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
We provide the majority of our hydraulic fracturing completion services to a limited number of customers, and the termination of one or more of these relationships could adversely affect our operations.
We provide completion services, which services include hydraulic fracturing. The majority of our revenue from this business is derived from Gulfport pursuant to a contract that expires in September 2018. We cannot assure you that we will be able to extend or renew our contract with Gulfport on favorable terms and conditions or at all. Likewise, we cannot assure you that we would be able to obtain a replacement long-term contract with other customers sufficient to continue providing the level of services as we currently do with Gulfport. The termination of our relationship or nonrenewal of our contract with Gulfport, or one or more of our other customers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We provide natural sand proppant to a limited number of customers, and the termination of one or more of these relationships could adversely affect our operations.
We provide natural sand proppant used for hydraulic fracturing. The majority of our revenue from this business is derived from Gulfport pursuant to a contract that expires in September 2018. The termination of our relationship or nonrenewal of our contract with Gulfport, or one or more of our other customers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We provide our remote accommodation services to a limited number of customers, and the termination of one or more of these or other relationships could adversely affect our operations.
In our other energy services division, we provide turnkey remote accommodations services for oilfield related labor located in remote areas, which services include site identification, permitting and development, facility design, construction, installation and full site maintenance. Approximately 85% of these services during the year ended December 31, 2016 were attributable to Oil Sands Limited. We anticipate that Oil Sands Limiteds occupancy of our accommodations will decrease by at least 70% in 2017 following the completion of the construction phase of its project in the service area, which occurred in early 2017. During the six months ended June 30, 2017, our revenue from this customer was $6.2 million, or 68% of our other energy service revenues during that period. Our failure to replace the revenue received from this customer will have a material adverse effect on the financial results of our other energy services division and could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations and financial condition. The termination of our relationship with any other of our remote accommodation customers could also have a material adverse effect on this part of our business. Further, our remote accommodation services are provided in Canada on tribal lands. Our failure to maintain favorable relationships with these tribes could adversely affect our operations and financial results.
Deterioration of the commodity price environment can negatively impact oil and natural gas exploration and production companies and, in some cases, impair their ability to timely pay for products or services provided or result in their insolvency or bankruptcy, any of which exposes us to credit risk of our oil and natural gas exploration and production customers.
In weak economic and commodity price environments, we may experience increased difficulties, delays or failures in collecting outstanding receivables from our customers, due to, among other reasons, a reduction in their cash flow from operations, their inability to access the credit markets and, in certain cases, their insolvencies. Such increases in collection issues could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. We cannot assure you that the reserves we have established for potential credit losses will be sufficient to meet write-offs of uncollectible receivables or that our losses from such receivables will be consistent with our expectations. To the extent one or more of our key customers commences bankruptcy proceedings, our contracts with these customers may be subject to rejection under applicable provisions of the United States Bankruptcy Code, or may be renegotiated. Further, during any such bankruptcy proceeding, prior to assumption, rejection or renegotiation of such contracts, the bankruptcy court may temporarily authorize the payment of value for our services less than contractually required, which could also have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Competition within the oilfield services industry may adversely affect our ability to market our services.
The oilfield services industry is highly competitive and fragmented and includes numerous small companies capable of competing effectively in our markets on a local basis, as well as several large companies that possess substantially greater financial and other resources than we do. Our larger competitors greater resources could allow those competitors to compete more effectively than we can. The amount of equipment available may exceed demand, which could result in active price competition. Many contracts are awarded on a bid basis, which may further increase competition based primarily on price. In addition, adverse market conditions lower demand for well servicing equipment, which results in excess equipment and lower utilization rates. If market conditions in our oil-oriented operating areas were to deteriorate or if adverse market conditions in our natural gas-oriented operating areas persist, utilization rates may decline.
Shortages, delays in delivery and interruptions in supply of drill pipe, replacement parts, other equipment, supplies and materials may adversely affect our contract land and directional drilling business or our pressure pumping business.
During periods of increased demand for drilling and completion services, the industry has experienced shortages of drill pipe, replacement parts, other equipment, supplies and materials, including, in the case of our
pressure pumping operations, proppants, acid, gel and water. These shortages can cause the price of these items to increase significantly and require that orders for the items be placed well in advance of expected use. In addition, any interruption in supply could result in significant delays in delivery of equipment and materials or prevent operations. Interruptions may be caused by, among other reasons:
|||weather issues, whether short-term such as a hurricane, or long-term such as a drought; and|
|||shortage in the number of vendors able or willing to provide the necessary equipment, supplies and materials, including as a result of commitments of vendors to other customers or third parties.|
These price increases, delays in delivery and interruptions in supply may require us to increase capital and repair expenditures and incur higher operating costs. Severe shortages, delays in delivery and interruptions in supply could limit our ability to construct and operate our drilling rigs and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
Oilfield services equipment, refurbishment and new asset construction projects, as well as the reactivation of oilfield service assets that have been idle for six months or longer, are subject to risks which could cause delays or cost overruns and adversely affect our cash flows, results of operations and financial position.
Oilfield services equipment or assets being upgraded, converted or re-activated following a period of inactivity may experience start-up complications and may encounter other operational problems that could result in significant delays, uncompensated downtime, reduced dayrates or the cancellation, termination or non-renewal of contracts. Construction and upgrade projects are subject to risks of delay or significant cost overruns inherent in any large construction project from numerous factors, including the following:
|||shortages of equipment, materials or skilled labor;|
|||unscheduled delays in the delivery of ordered materials and equipment or shipyard construction;|
|||failure of equipment to meet quality and/or performance standards;|
|||financial or operating difficulties of equipment vendors;|
|||unanticipated actual or purported change orders;|
|||inability by us or our customer to obtain required permits or approvals, or to meet applicable regulatory standards in our areas of operations;|
|||unanticipated cost increases between order and delivery;|
|||adverse weather conditions and other events of force majeure;|
|||design or engineering changes; and|
|||work stoppages and other labor disputes.|
The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our cash flows, results of operations and financial position.
Advancements in oilfield service technologies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The oilfield services industry is characterized by rapid and significant technological advancements and introductions of new products and services using new technologies. As new horizontal and directional drilling, pressure pumping, pressure control and well service technologies develop, we may be placed at a competitive disadvantage, and competitive pressure may force us to implement new technologies at a substantial cost. We
may not be able to successfully acquire or use new technologies. Further, our customers are increasingly demanding the services of newer, higher specification drilling rigs. There can be no assurance that we will:
|||have sufficient capital resources to build new, technologically advanced equipment and other assets;|
|||successfully integrate additional oilfield service equipment and other assets;|
|||effectively manage the growth and increased size of our organization, equipment and other assets;|
|||successfully deploy idle, stacked or additional oilfield service assets;|
|||maintain crews necessary to operate additional drilling rigs or pressure pumping service equipment; or|
|||successfully improve our financial condition, results of operations, business or prospects.|
If we are not successful in building or acquiring new oilfield service equipment and other assets or upgrading our existing rigs and equipment in a timely and cost-effective manner, we could lose market share. New technologies, services or standards could render some of our services, equipment and other assets obsolete, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
Our business depends upon our ability to obtain specialized equipment and parts from third-party suppliers, and we may be vulnerable to delayed deliveries and future price increases.
We purchase specialized equipment and parts from third party suppliers. At times during the business cycle, there is a high demand for hydraulic fracturing, coiled tubing and other oilfield services and extended lead times to obtain equipment needed to provide these services. Further, there are a limited number of suppliers that manufacture the equipment we use. Should our current suppliers be unable or unwilling to provide the necessary equipment and parts or otherwise fail to deliver the products timely and in the quantities required, any resulting delays in the provision of our services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, future price increases for this type of equipment and parts could negatively impact our ability to purchase new equipment to update or expand our existing fleet or to timely repair equipment in our existing fleet.
Inaccuracies in estimates of volumes and qualities of our sand reserves could result in lower than expected sales and higher than expected production costs.
On May 26, 2017, we acquired substantially all of the assets of Chieftain Sand and Proppant, LLC and Chieftain Sand and Proppant Barron, LLC, unrelated third party sellers, following our successful bid in a bankruptcy court auction, which assets include a wet and dry plant and sand mine located on approximately 600 acres in New Auburn, Wisconsin. Also, on June 5, 2017, we acquired from Gulfport Energy Corporation, which we refer to as Gulfport, certain affiliates of Wexford Capital LP, which we refer to as Wexford, and Rhino Exploration LLC, which we refer to as Rhino, all outstanding membership interests in Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC, which owns Taylor Frac, LLC, Taylor Real Estate Investments, LLC and South Rive Road, LLC (collectively referred to as Taylor Frac). These acquisitions added sand reserves to our operations and increased our production capacity.
Estimates of our sand reserves are by nature imprecise and depend to some extent on statistical inferences drawn from available data, which may prove unreliable. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities and qualities of sand reserves and costs to mine recoverable reserves, including many factors beyond our control. Estimates of economically recoverable sand reserves necessarily depend on a number of factors and assumptions, all of which may vary considerably from actual results, such as:
|||geological and mining conditions and/or effects from prior mining that may not be fully identified by available data or that may differ from experience;|
|||assumptions concerning future prices of frac sand, operating costs, mining technology improvements, development costs and reclamation costs; and|
|||assumptions concerning future effects of regulation, including the issuance of required permits and taxes by governmental agencies.|
Any inaccuracy in the estimates related to our sand reserves could result in lower than expected sales and higher than expected costs. For example, these estimates assume that our revenue and cost structure will remain relatively constant over the life of our reserves. If these assumptions prove to be inaccurate, some or all of our reserves may not be economically mineable, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. In addition, we pay a fixed price per ton of sand excavated regardless of the quality of the frac sand, and our current customer contracts require us to deliver frac sand that meets certain specifications. If the estimates of the quality of our sand reserves, including the volumes of the various specifications of those reserves, prove to be inaccurate, we may incur significantly higher excavation costs without corresponding increases in revenues, we may not be able to meet our contractual obligations, or our facilities may have a shorter than expected reserve life, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.
As part of our natural sand proppant services business, we rely on third parties for raw materials and transportation, and the termination of our relationship with one or more of these third parties could adversely affect our operations.
As part of our natural sand proppant services business, we buy processed sand from suppliers on the spot market and resell that sand. Although we did not do so during the year ended December 31, 2016, we also have the ability to buy raw or washed sand, process it into premium monocrystalline sand, a specialized mineral that is used as a proppant (also known as frac sand), at our indoor sand processing plant located in Pierce County, Wisconsin and sell it to our customers for use in their hydraulic fracturing operations to enhance the recovery rates of hydrocarbons from oil and natural gas wells. We also provide logistics solutions to deliver our frac sand products to our customers. Because our customers generally find it impractical to store frac sand in large quantities near their job sites, they seek to arrange for product to be delivered where and as needed, which requires predictable and efficient loading and shipping of product. To facilitate our logistics and transload facility capabilities, we contract with third party providers to transport our frac sand products to railroad facilities for delivery to our customers. We also lease a railcar fleet from various third parties to deliver our frac sand products to our customers and lease or otherwise utilize origin and destination transloading facilities. The termination or nonrenewal of our relationship with any one or more of these third parties involved in the sourcing, transportation and delivery of our frac sand products could result in material operational delays, increase our operating costs, limit our ability to service our customers wells or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.
Future performance of our natural sand proppant services business will depend on our ability to succeed in competitive markets, and on our ability to appropriately react to potential fluctuations in the demand for and supply of frac sand.
In our natural sand proppant services business, we operate in a highly competitive market that is characterized by a small number of large, national producers and a larger number of small, regional or local producers. Competition in the industry is based on price, consistency and quality of product, site location, distribution and logistics capabilities, customer service, reliability of supply and breadth of product offering. The large, national producers with whom we compete include Badger Mining Corporation, Fairmount Santrol Holdings, Inc., Hi-Crush Partners LP, Preferred Proppants LLC, Unimin Corporation, Smart Sand, Inc., Emerge Energy Services LP and U.S. Silica Holdings Inc. Our larger competitors may have greater financial and other resources than we do, may develop technology superior to ours, may have production facilities that are located closer to sand mines from which raw sand is mined or to their key customers than our processing facility or have a more cost effective access to raw sand and transportation facilities that we do. Should the demand for hydraulic fracturing services decrease, prices in the frac sand market could materially decrease as producers may seek to preserve market share or exit the market and sell frac sand at below market prices. In addition, oil and natural gas exploration and production companies and other providers of hydraulic fracturing services could acquire their
own frac sand reserves, develop or expand frac sand production capacity or otherwise fulfill their own proppant requirements and existing or new frac sand producers could add to or expand their frac sand production capacity, which may negatively impact pricing and demand for our frac sand. We may not be able to compete successfully against either our larger or smaller competitors in the future, and competition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
An increase in the supply of raw frac sand having similar characteristics as the raw frac sand we produce and sell could make it more difficult for us to market our sand on favorable terms or at all.
We have entered into a take-or-pay contract with our principal raw frac sand supplier. If significant new reserves of raw frac sand continue to be discovered and developed, and those frac sands have similar characteristics to the frac sand we produce and sell, the market price for our frac sand may decline. If the market price for our frac sand falls below an amount equal to the contracted purchase price in our take-or-pay contract plus our processing and related transportation costs, this could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows over the remaining term of this contract.
Diminished access to water and inability to secure or maintain necessary permits may adversely affect operations of our frac sand processing plant.
The processing of raw sand and production of natural sand proppant require significant amounts of water. As a result, securing water rights and water access is necessary to operate our processing facilities. If the area where our facilities are located experiences water shortages, restrictions or any other constraints due to drought, contamination or otherwise, there may be additional costs associated with securing water access. Although we have obtained water rights to service our activities when we are operating our processing plants, the amount of water that we are entitled to use pursuant to our water rights must be determined by the appropriate regulatory authorities. Such regulatory authorities may amend the regulations regarding such water rights, increase the cost of maintaining such water rights or eliminate our current water rights, and we may be unable to retain all or a portion of such water rights. If implemented, these new regulations could also affect local municipalities and other industrial operations and could have a material adverse effect on costs involved in operating our processing plant. Such changes in laws, regulations or government policy and related interpretations pertaining to water rights may alter the environment in which we do business, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, a water discharge permit may be required to properly dispose of water at our processing site when in operation. Certain of our facilities are also required to obtain storm water permits. The water discharge, storm water or any other permits we may be required to have in order to conduct our frac sand processing operations (when they are restarted) is subject to regulatory discretion, and any inability to obtain or maintain the necessary permits could have an adverse effect on our ability to run such operations.
Demand for our frac sand products could be reduced by changes in well stimulation processes and technologies, as well as changes in governmental regulations and other applicable law.
As part of our natural sand proppant services business, we sell, distribute and produce custom frac sand products to our customers for use in their hydraulic fracturing operations to enhance the recovery rates of hydrocarbons from oil and natural gas wells. A significant shift in demand from frac sand to other proppants, or the development of new processes to replace hydraulic fracturing altogether, could cause a decline in the demand for the frac sand we produce and result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Further, federal and state governments and agencies have adopted various laws and regulations or are evaluating proposed legislation and regulations that are focused on the extraction of shale gas or oil using hydraulic fracturing, a process which utilizes proppants such as those that we produce. Future hydraulic fracturing-related legislation or regulations could restrict the ability of our customers to utilize, or increase the cost associated with, hydraulic fracturing, which could reduce demand for our proppants and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. For additional information regarding the regulation of hydraulic fracturing, see Risks Related to Our Business and the Oil and Natural Gas IndustryFederal and
state legislative and regulatory initiatives relating to hydraulic fracturing could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays .
The customized nature, and remote location, of the modular camps that we provide and service present unique challenges that could adversely affect our ability to successfully operate our remote accommodations business.
We rely on a third-party subcontractor to manufacture and install the customized modular units used in our remote accommodations business. These customized units often take a considerable amount of time to manufacture and, once manufactured, often need to be delivered to remote areas that are frequently difficult to access by traditional means of transportation. In the event we are unable to provide these modular units in a timely fashion, we may not be entitled to full, or any, payment therefor under the terms of our contracts with customers. In addition, the remote location of the modular camps often makes it difficult to install and maintain the units, and our failure, on a timely basis, to have such units installed and provide maintenance services could result in our breach of, and non-payment by our customers under, the terms of our customer contracts. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our remote accommodation business and our overall financial condition and results of operations.
Health and food safety issues and food-borne illness concerns could adversely affect our remote accommodations business.
We provide food services to our customers as part of our remote accommodations business and, as a result, face health and food safety issues that are common in the food and hospitality industries. Food-borne illnesses, such as E. coli, hepatitis A, trichinosis or salmonella, and food safety issues have occurred in the food industry in the past and could occur in the future. Our reliance on third-party food suppliers and distributors increases the risk that food-borne illness incidents could be caused by factors outside of our control. New illnesses resistant to any precautions may develop in the future, or diseases with long incubation periods could arise. Further, the remote nature of our accommodation facilities and related food services may increase the risk of contamination of our food supply and create additional health and hygiene concerns due to the limited access to modern amenities and conveniences that may not be faced by other food service providers or hospitality businesses operating in urban environment. If our customers become ill from food-borne illness, we could be forced to close some or all of our remote accommodation facilities on a temporary basis or otherwise. Any such incidents and/or any report of publicity linking us to incidents of food-borne illness or other food safety issues, including food tampering or contamination, could adversely affect our remote accommodations business as well as our overall financial condition and results of operations.
Development of permanent infrastructure in the Canadian oil sands region or other locations where we locate our remote accommodations could negatively impact our remote accommodations business.
Our remote accommodations business specializes in providing modular housing and related services for work forces in remote areas which lack the infrastructure typically available in towns and cities. If permanent towns, cities and municipal infrastructure develop in the oil sands region of northern Alberta, Canada or other regions where we locate our modular camps, then demand for our accommodations could decrease as customer employees move to the region and choose to utilize permanent housing and food services.
Revenue generated and expenses incurred by our remote accommodation business are denominated in the Canadian dollar and could be negatively impacted by currency fluctuations.
Our remote accommodation business generates revenue and incurs expenses that are denominated in the Canadian dollar. These transactions could be materially affected by currency fluctuations. Changes in currency exchange rates could adversely affect our combined results of operations or financial position. We also maintain cash balances denominated in the Canadian dollar. At June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we had $3.1 million and $5.6 million of cash, respectively, in Canadian dollars, in Canadian accounts. A 10% increase in
the strength of the Canadian dollar versus the U.S. dollar would have resulted in an increase in pre-tax income of approximately $0.2 million and $0.9 million, respectively, as of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016. Conversely, a corresponding decrease in the strength of the Canadian dollar would have resulted in a comparable decrease in pre-tax income. We have not hedged our exposure to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and, as a result, could incur unanticipated translation gains and losses.
Certain of our completion and production services, particularly our hydraulic fracturing services, are substantially dependent on the availability of water. Restrictions on our ability, or our customers ability, to obtain water may have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Water is an essential component of deep shale oil and natural gas production during both the drilling and hydraulic fracturing processes. Over the past several years, certain of the areas have experienced extreme drought conditions and competition for water in such shales is growing. As a result of this severe drought, some local water districts have begun restricting the use of water subject to their jurisdiction for hydraulic fracturing to protect local water supply. Our inability, or customers inability, to obtain water to use in our operations from local sources or to effectively utilize flowback water could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We rely on a few key employees whose absence or loss could adversely affect our business.
Many key responsibilities within our business have been assigned to a small number of employees. The loss of their services could adversely affect our business. In particular, the loss of the services of our Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer, could disrupt our operations. We do not have any written employment agreement with our executives at this time. Further, we do not maintain key person life insurance policies on any of our employees. As a result, we are not insured against any losses resulting from the death of our key employees.
If we are unable to employ a sufficient number of skilled and qualified workers, our capacity and profitability could be diminished and our growth potential could be impaired.
The delivery of our products and services requires skilled and qualified workers with specialized skills and experience who can perform physically demanding work. As a result of the volatility of the oilfield services industry and the demanding nature of the work, workers may choose to pursue employment in fields that offer a more desirable work environment at wage rates that are competitive. Our ability to be productive and profitable will depend upon our ability to employ and retain skilled workers. In addition, our ability to expand our operations depends in part on our ability to increase the size of our skilled labor force. The demand for skilled workers is high, and the supply is limited. As a result, competition for experienced oilfield service personnel is intense, and we face significant challenges in competing for crews and management with large and well established competitors. A significant increase in the wages paid by competing employers could result in a reduction of our skilled labor force, increases in the wage rates that we must pay, or both. If either of these events were to occur, our capacity and profitability could be diminished and our growth potential could be impaired.
Unionization efforts could increase our costs or limit our flexibility.
Presently, none of our employees work under collective bargaining agreements. Unionization efforts have been made from time to time within our industry, to varying degrees of success. Any such unionization could increase our costs or limit our flexibility.
Our operations may be limited or disrupted in certain parts of the continental U.S. and Canada during severe weather conditions, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We provide pressure pumping and well services and contract land and directional drilling services in the Utica, Permian Basin, Marcellus, Granite Wash, Cana Woodford, STACK, SCOOP and Eagle Ford resource
plays located in the continental U.S. We also provide remote accommodation services in the oil sands in Alberta, Canada. We serve these markets through our facilities and service centers located in Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Alberta, Canada. For the six months ended June 30, 2017 and the year ended December 31, 2016, we generated approximately 81% and 84%, respectively, of our revenue from our operations in Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Canada where weather conditions may be severe, particularly during winter and spring months. Repercussions of severe weather conditions may include:
|||curtailment of services;|
|||weather-related damage to equipment resulting in suspension of operations;|
|||weather-related damage to our facilities;|
|||inability to deliver equipment and materials to jobsites in accordance with contract schedules; and|
|||loss of productivity.|
Many municipalities, including those in Ohio and Wisconsin, impose bans or other restrictions on the use of roads and highways, which include weight restrictions on the paved roads that lead to our jobsites due to the muddy conditions caused by spring thaws. This can limit our access to these jobsites and our ability to service wells in these areas. These constraints and the resulting shortages or high costs could delay our operations and materially increase our operating and capital costs in those regions. Weather conditions may also affect the price of crude oil and natural gas, and related demand for our services. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Concerns over general economic, business or industry conditions may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.
Concerns over global economic conditions, energy costs, geopolitical issues, inflation, the availability and cost of credit and the European, Asian and the United States financial markets have contributed to increased economic uncertainty and diminished expectations for the global economy. These factors, combined with volatility in commodity prices, business and consumer confidence and unemployment rates, have precipitated an economic slowdown. Concerns about global economic growth have had a significant adverse impact on global financial markets and commodity prices. If the economic climate in the United States or abroad deteriorates, worldwide demand for petroleum products could diminish further, which could impact the price at which oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids can be sold, which could affect the ability of our customers to continue operations and ultimately adversely impact our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.
A terrorist attack or armed conflict could harm our business
The occurrence or threat of terrorist attacks in the United States or other countries, anti-terrorist efforts and other armed conflicts involving the United States or other countries, including continued hostilities in the Middle East, may adversely affect the United States and global economies and could prevent us from meeting our financial and other obligations. If any of these events occur, the resulting political instability and societal disruption could reduce overall demand for oil and natural gas, potentially putting downward pressure on demand for our services and causing a reduction in our revenues. Oil and natural gas related facilities could be direct targets of terrorist attacks, and our operations could be adversely impacted if infrastructure integral to our customers operations is destroyed or damaged. Costs for insurance and other security may increase as a result of these threats, and some insurance coverage may become more difficult to obtain, if available at all.
Our operations require substantial capital and we may be unable to obtain needed capital or financing on satisfactory terms or at all, which could limit our ability to grow.
Our capital budget for 2017 is estimated to be $143 million, a substantial increase from our 2016 capital budget of approximately $11.3 million. Since November 2014, we have funded our capital expenditures
primarily with cash on hand, cash generated by operations and borrowings under our revolving credit facility (other than our acquisitions in June 2017, which we completed with the issuance of shares of our common stock). We may be unable to generate sufficient cash from operations and other capital resources to maintain planned or future levels of capital expenditures which, among other things, may prevent us from acquiring new equipment or properly maintaining our existing equipment. Further, any disruptions or continuing volatility in the global financial markets may lead to an increase in interest rates or a contraction in credit availability impacting our ability to finance our operations. This could put us at a competitive disadvantage or interfere with our growth plans. Further, our actual capital expenditures for 2017 or future years could exceed our capital expenditure budget. In the event our capital expenditure requirements at any time are greater than the amount we have available, we could be required to seek additional sources of capital, which may include debt financing, joint venture partnerships, sales of assets, offerings of debt or equity securities or other means. We may not be able to obtain any such alternative source of capital. We may be required to curtail or eliminate contemplated activities. If we can obtain alternative sources of capital, the terms of such alternative may not be favorable to us. In particular, the terms of any debt financing may include covenants that significantly restrict our operations. Our inability to grow as planned may reduce our chances of maintaining and improving profitability.
The growth of our business through acquisitions may expose us to various risks, including those relating to difficulties in identifying suitable, accretive acquisition opportunities and integrating businesses, assets and personnel, as well as difficulties in obtaining financing for targeted acquisitions and the potential for increased leverage or debt service requirements.
As a component of our business strategy, we have pursued and intend to continue to pursue selected, accretive acquisitions of complementary assets, businesses and technologies. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including:
|||unanticipated costs and assumption of liabilities and exposure to unforeseen liabilities of acquired businesses, including but not limited to environmental liabilities;|
|||difficulties in integrating the operations and assets of the acquired business and the acquired personnel;|
|||limitations on our ability to properly assess and maintain an effective internal control environment over an acquired business, in order to comply with public reporting requirements;|
|||potential losses of key employees and customers of the acquired businesses;|
|||inability to commercially develop acquired technologies;|
|||risks of entering markets in which we have limited prior experience; and|
|||increases in our expenses and working capital requirements.|
The process of integrating an acquired business may involve unforeseen costs and delays or other operational, technical and financial difficulties and may require a disproportionate amount of management attention and financial and other resources. Our failure to achieve consolidation savings, to incorporate the acquired businesses and assets into our existing operations successfully or to minimize any unforeseen operational difficulties could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, there is intense competition for acquisition opportunities in our industry. Competition for acquisitions may increase the cost of, or cause us to refrain from, completing acquisitions. In addition, we may not have sufficient capital resources to complete additional acquisitions. Historically, we have financed capital expenditures primarily with funding from our equity investors, cash generated by operations and borrowings under our revolving credit facility. We may incur substantial indebtedness to finance future acquisitions and also may issue equity, debt or convertible securities in connection with such acquisitions. Debt service requirements could represent a significant burden on our results of operations and financial condition and the issuance of additional equity or convertible securities could be dilutive to our existing stockholders. Furthermore, we may not be able to obtain additional financing on satisfactory terms. Even if we have access to the necessary capital,
we may be unable to continue to identify additional suitable acquisition opportunities, negotiate acceptable terms or successfully acquire identified targets. Our ability to grow through acquisitions and manage growth will require us to continue to invest in operational, financial and management information systems and to attract, retain, motivate and effectively manage our employees. The inability to effectively manage the integration of acquisitions could reduce our focus on subsequent acquisitions and current operations, which, in turn, could negatively impact our earnings and growth. Our financial position and results of operations may fluctuate significantly from period to period, based on whether or not significant acquisitions are completed in particular periods.
We may have difficulty managing growth in our business, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
As a recently formed company, growth in accordance with our business plan, if achieved, could place a significant strain on our financial, technical, operational and management resources. As we expand the scope of our activities and our geographic coverage through both organic growth and acquisitions, there will be additional demands on our financial, technical, operational and management resources. The failure to continue to upgrade our technical, administrative, operating and financial control systems or the occurrences of unexpected expansion difficulties, including the failure to recruit and retain experienced managers, engineers and other professionals in the oilfield services industry, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to successfully or timely execute our business plan.
If our intended expansion of our business is not successful, our financial condition, profitability and results of operations could be adversely affected, and we may not achieve increases in revenue and profitability that we hope to realize.
A key element of our business strategy involves the expansion of our services, geographic presence and customer base. These aspects of our strategy are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including:
|||an inability to retain or hire experienced crews and other personnel;|
|||a lack of customer demand for the services we intend to provide;|
|||an inability to secure necessary equipment, raw materials (particularly sand and other proppants) or technology to successfully execute our expansion plans;|
|||shortages of water used in our sand processing operations and our hydraulic fracturing operations;|
|||unanticipated delays that could limit or defer the provision of services by us and jeopardize our relationships with existing customers and adversely affect our ability to obtain new customers for such services; and|
|||competition from new and existing services providers.|
Encountering any of these or any unforeseen problems in implementing our planned expansion could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and could prevent us from achieving the increases in revenues and profitability that we hope to realize.
Our liquidity needs could restrict our operations and make us more vulnerable to adverse economic conditions.
Our future indebtedness, whether incurred in connection with acquisitions, operations or otherwise, may adversely affect our operations and limit our growth, and we may have difficulty making debt service payments on such indebtedness as payments become due. Our level of indebtedness may affect our operations in several ways, including the following:
|||increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;|
|||the covenants that are contained in the agreements governing our indebtedness could limit our ability to borrow funds, dispose of assets, pay dividends and make certain investments;|
|||our debt covenants could also affect our flexibility in planning for, and reacting to, changes in the economy and in our industry;|
|||any failure to comply with the financial or other covenants of our debt, including covenants that impose requirements to maintain certain financial ratios, could result in an event of default, which could result in some or all of our indebtedness becoming immediately due and payable;|
|||our level of debt could impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate purposes; and|
|||our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to enable us to meet our obligations under our indebtedness.|
Our revolving credit facility imposes, and any of our future credit facilities may impose, restrictions on us that may affect our ability to successfully operate our business.
Our revolving credit facility limits, and any of our future credit facilities may limit, our ability to take various actions, such as:
|||incurring additional indebtedness;|
|||creating certain additional liens on our assets;|
|||entering into sale and leaseback transactions;|
|||entering into transactions with affiliates;|
|||making material changes to the type of business we conduct or our business structure;|
|||entering into hedges;|
|||disposing of assets in excess of certain permitted amounts;|
|||merging or consolidating with other entities; and|
|||selling all or substantially all of our assets.|
In addition, our revolving credit facility requires, and any future debt may require, us to maintain certain financial ratios and to satisfy certain financial conditions, which may require us to reduce our debt or take some other action in order to comply with each of them. These restrictions could also limit our ability to obtain future financings, make needed capital expenditures, withstand a downturn in our business or the economy in general, or otherwise conduct necessary corporate activities. We also may be prevented from taking advantage of business opportunities that arise because of the limitations imposed on us by the restrictive covenants under our revolving credit facility and any future debt agreements. If we fail to comply with the covenants in our existing revolving credit facility or any future debt agreements and such failure is not waived by the lender, a default may be declared by the lenders, which could have a material adverse effect on us.
Our revolving credit facility provides, and any future credit facilities may provide, for variable interest rates, which may increase or decrease our interest expense.
At June 30, 2017, we had $65.0 million outstanding under our revolving credit facility, including $57.0 million in a one-month LIBOR rate option tranche with an interest rate of 3.72%, and availability under
that facility of $104.7 million. At October 24, 2017, we had an aggregate of $105.0 million in borrowings outstanding under our revolving credit facility, leaving an aggregate of $64.2 million of available borrowing capacity under that facility. A 1% increase or decrease in the interest rate at that time would have increased or decreased our interest expense by approximately $1.1 million per year. We do not currently hedge our interest rate exposure.
We may not be able to provide services that meet the specific needs of oil and natural gas exploration and production companies at competitive prices.
The markets in which we operate are generally highly competitive and have relatively few barriers to entry. The principal competitive factors in our markets are price, product and service quality and availability, responsiveness, experience, technology, equipment quality and reputation for safety. We compete with large national and multi-national companies that have longer operating histories, greater financial, technical and other resources and greater name recognition than we do. Several of our competitors provide a broader array of services and have a stronger presence in more geographic markets. In addition, we compete with several smaller companies capable of competing effectively on a regional or local basis. Our competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and services and changes in customer requirements. Some contracts are awarded on a bid basis, which further increases competition based on price. Pricing is often the primary factor in determining which qualified contractor is awarded a job. The competitive environment may be further intensified by mergers and acquisitions among oil and natural gas companies or other events that have the effect of reducing the number of available customers. As a result of competition, we may lose market share or be unable to maintain or increase prices for our present services or to acquire additional business opportunities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
In addition, some exploration and production companies have begun performing hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling on their wells using their own equipment and personnel. Any increase in the development and utilization of in-house fracturing and directional drilling capabilities by our customers could decrease the demand for our services and have a material adverse impact on our business.
Our operations are subject to hazards inherent in the oil and natural gas and energy infrastructure industries, which could expose us to substantial liability and cause us to lose customers and substantial revenue.
Risks inherent to our industry, such as equipment defects, vehicle accidents, fires, explosions, blowouts, surface cratering, uncontrollable flows of gas or well fluids, pipe or pipeline failures, abnormally pressured formations and various environmental hazards such as oil spills and releases of, and exposure to, hazardous substances. For example, our operations are subject to risks associated with hydraulic fracturing, including any mishandling, surface spillage or potential underground migration of fracturing fluids, including chemical additives. The occurrence of any of these events could result in substantial losses to us due to injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property, natural resources and equipment, pollution or other environmental damage, clean-up responsibilities, regulatory investigations and penalties, suspension of operations and repairs required to resume operations. The cost of managing such risks may be significant. The frequency and severity of such incidents will affect operating costs, insurability and relationships with customers, employees and regulators. In particular, our customers may elect not to purchase our services if they view our environmental or safety record as unacceptable, which could cause us to lose customers and substantial revenues. In addition, these risks may be greater for us than some of our competitors because we sometimes acquire companies that may not have allocated significant resources and management focus to safety and environmental matters and may have a poor environmental and safety record and associated possible exposure. Our insurance may not be adequate to cover all losses or liabilities we may suffer. Also, insurance may no longer be available to us or, if it is, its availability may be at premium levels that do not justify its purchase. The occurrence of a significant uninsured claim, a claim in excess of the insurance coverage limits maintained by us or a claim at a time when we are not able to obtain liability insurance could have a material adverse effect on our ability to
conduct normal business operations and on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, we may not be able to secure additional insurance or bonding that might be required by new governmental regulations. This may cause us to restrict our operations, which might severely impact our financial position.
Since hydraulic fracturing activities are part of our operations, they are covered by our insurance against claims made for bodily injury, property damage and clean-up costs stemming from a sudden and accidental pollution event. However, we may not have coverage if we are unaware of the pollution event and unable to report the occurrence to our insurance company within the time frame required under our insurance policy. We have no coverage for gradual, long-term pollution events. In addition, these policies do not provide coverage for all liabilities, and the insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover claims that may arise, or we may not be able to maintain adequate insurance at rates we consider reasonable. A loss not fully covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to extensive environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that may subject us to substantial liability or require us to take actions that will adversely affect our results of operations.
Our business is significantly affected by stringent and complex federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the discharge of substances into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection and health and safety matters. As part of our business, we handle, transport and dispose of a variety of fluids and substances, including hydraulic fracturing fluids which can contain hydrochloric acid and certain petrochemicals. This activity poses some risks of environmental liability, including leakage of hazardous substances from the wells to surface and subsurface soils, surface water or groundwater. We also handle, transport and store these substances. The handling, transportation, storage and disposal of these fluids are regulated by a number of laws, including: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Clean Water Act; the Safe Drinking Water Act; and other federal and state laws and regulations promulgated thereunder. The cost of compliance with these laws can be significant. Failure to properly handle, transport or dispose of these materials or otherwise conduct our operations in accordance with these and other environmental laws could expose us to substantial liability for administrative, civil and criminal penalties, cleanup and site restoration costs and liability associated with releases of such materials, damages to natural resources and other damages, as well as potentially impair our ability to conduct our operations. We could be exposed to liability for cleanup costs, natural resource damages and other damages under these and other environmental laws. Such liability is commonly on a strict, joint and several liability basis, without regard to fault. Liability may be imposed as a result of our conduct that was lawful at the time it occurred or the conduct of, or conditions caused by, prior operators or other third parties. Environmental laws and regulations have changed in the past, and they are likely to change in the future. If existing environmental requirements or enforcement policies change and become more stringent, we may be required to make significant unanticipated capital and operating expenditures.
Regulation of greenhouse gas emissions could result in increased operating costs and reduced demand for oil and natural gas.
In recent years, federal, state and local governments have taken steps to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, or GHGs. The Environmental Protection Agency, or the EPA, has finalized a series of GHG monitoring, reporting and emissions control rules for the oil and natural gas industry, and the U.S. Congress has, from time to time, considered adopting legislation to reduce emissions. Almost one-half of the states have already taken measures to reduce emissions of GHGs primarily through the development of GHG emission inventories and/or regional GHG cap-and-trade programs. While we are subject to certain federal GHG monitoring and reporting requirements, our operations currently are not adversely impacted by existing federal, state and local climate change initiatives.
In December 2015, the United States participated in the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP-21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris, France. The resulting Paris Agreement calls
for the parties to undertake ambitious efforts to limit the average global temperature, and to conserve and enhance sinks and reservoirs of GHGs. The Agreement went into effect on November 4, 2016. The Agreement establishes a framework for the parties to cooperate and report actions to reduce GHG emissions. However, on June 1, 2017, President Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the Paris Agreement, and begin negotiations to either re-enter or negotiate an entirely new agreement with more favorable terms for the United States. While President Trump expressed a clear intent to cease implementing the Paris Agreement, it is not clear how the Administration plans to accomplish this goal, whether a new agreement can be negotiated or what terms would be included in such an agreement. Furthermore, in response to the announcement, many state and local leaders have stated their intent to intensify efforts to uphold the commitments set forth in the international accord.
Although it is not possible at this time to predict how legislation or new regulations that may be adopted to address GHG emissions would impact our business, any such future laws and regulations imposing reporting obligations on, or limiting emissions of GHGs from, our equipment and operations could require us to incur costs to reduce emissions of GHGs associated with our operations. In addition, substantial limitations on GHG emissions could adversely affect demand for oil and natural gas and, consequently, the services we provide.
In addition, claims have been made against certain energy companies alleging that GHG emissions from oil and natural gas operations constitute a public nuisance under federal and/or state common law. As a result, private individuals or public entities may seek to enforce environmental laws and regulations against us and could allege personal injury, property damage or other liabilities. While our business is not a party to any such litigation, we could be named in actions making similar allegations. An unfavorable ruling in any such case could significantly impact our operations and could have an adverse impact on our financial condition.
Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives relating to hydraulic fracturing could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays.
Our business is dependent on our ability to conduct hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling activities. Hydraulic fracturing is an important and common practice that is used to stimulate production of hydrocarbons, particularly natural gas, from tight formations, including shales. The process, which involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals (also called proppants) under pressure into formations to fracture the surrounding rock and stimulate production, is typically regulated by state oil and natural gas commissions. However, legislation has been proposed in recent sessions of Congress to amend the federal Safe Drinking Water Act, or SDWA, to repeal the exemption for hydraulic fracturing from the definition of underground injection, to require federal permitting and regulatory control of hydraulic fracturing, and to require disclosure of the chemical constituents of the fluids used in the fracturing process. Furthermore, several federal agencies have asserted regulatory authority over certain aspects of the process. For example, the EPA has taken the position that hydraulic fracturing with fluids containing diesel fuel is subject to regulation under the Underground Injection Control, or UIC, program under the SDWA, specifically as Class II UIC wells.
In addition, the EPA previously announced its plans to develop a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking by June 2018, which would describe a proposed mechanismregulatory, voluntary or a combination of bothto collect data on hydraulic fracturing chemical substances and mixtures. Also, on June 28, 2016, the EPA published a final rule prohibiting the discharge of wastewater from onshore unconventional oil and natural gas extraction facilities to publicly owned wastewater treatment plans. The EPA is also conducting a study of private wastewater treatment facilities (also known as centralized waste treatment, or CWT, facilities) accepting oil and natural gas extraction wastewater. The EPA is collecting data and information related to the extent to which CWT facilities accept such wastewater, available treatment technologies (and their associated costs), discharge characteristics, financial characteristics of CWT facilities and the environmental impacts of discharges from CWT facilities.
On August 16, 2012, the EPA published final regulations under the federal Clean Air Act that establish new air emission controls for oil and natural gas production and natural gas processing operations. Specifically, the
EPAs rule package includes New Source Performance standards to address emissions of sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, and a separate set of emission standards to address hazardous air pollutants frequently associated with oil and natural gas production and processing activities. The final rules seek to achieve a 95% reduction in VOCs emitted by requiring the use of reduced emission completions or green completions on all hydraulically-fractured wells constructed or refractured after January 1, 2015. The rules also establish specific new requirements regarding emissions from compressors, controllers, dehydrators, storage tanks and other production equipment. The EPA received numerous requests for reconsideration of these rules from both industry and the environmental community, and court challenges to the rules were also filed. In response, the EPA has issued, and will likely continue to issue, revised rules responsive to some of the requests for reconsideration. In particular, on May 12, 2016, the EPA amended its regulations to impose new standards for methane and VOC emissions for certain new, modified and reconstructed equipment, processes and activities across the oil and natural gas sector. However, in a March 28, 2017 executive order, President Trump directed the EPA to review the 2016 regulations and, if appropriate, to initiate a rulemaking to rescind or revise them consistent with the stated policy of promoting clean and safe development of the nations energy resources, while at the same time avoiding regulatory burdens that unnecessarily encumber energy production. On June 16, 2017, the EPA published a proposed rule to stay for two years certain requirements that are subject to reconsideration, including fugitive emission requirements.
Furthermore, there are certain governmental reviews either underway or being proposed that focus on the environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing practices. These ongoing or proposed studies, depending on their degree of pursuit and whether any meaningful results are obtained, could spur initiatives to further regulate hydraulic fracturing under the SDWA or other regulatory authorities. The EPA continues to evaluate the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources and the induced seismic activity from disposal wells and has recommended strategies for managing and minimizing the potential for significant injection-induced seismic events. Other governmental agencies, including the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Government Accountability Office, have evaluated or are evaluating various other aspects of hydraulic fracturing. These ongoing or proposed studies could spur initiatives to further regulate hydraulic fracturing, and could ultimately make it more difficult or costly for us to perform fracturing and increase the costs of compliance and doing business.
Several states and local jurisdictions in which we operate have adopted or are considering adopting regulations that could restrict or prohibit hydraulic fracturing in certain circumstances, impose more stringent operating standards and/or require the disclosure of the composition of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Any increased regulation of hydraulic fracturing could reduce the demand for our services and materially and adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.
There has been increasing public controversy regarding hydraulic fracturing with regard to the use of fracturing fluids, induced seismic activity, impacts on drinking water supplies, use of water and the potential for impacts to surface water, groundwater and the environment generally. A number of lawsuits and enforcement actions have been initiated across the country implicating hydraulic fracturing practices. If new laws or regulations are adopted that significantly restrict hydraulic fracturing, such laws could make it more difficult or costly for us to perform fracturing to stimulate production from tight formations as well as make it easier for third parties opposing the hydraulic fracturing process to initiate legal proceedings based on allegations that specific chemicals used in the fracturing process could adversely affect groundwater. In addition, if hydraulic fracturing is further regulated at the federal, state or local level, our fracturing activities could become subject to additional permitting and financial assurance requirements, more stringent construction specifications, increased monitoring, reporting and recordkeeping obligations, plugging and abandonment requirements and also to attendant permitting delays and potential increases in costs. Such legislative or regulatory changes could cause us to incur substantial compliance costs, and compliance or the consequences of any failure to comply by us could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. At this time, it is not possible to estimate the impact on our business of newly enacted or potential federal, state or local laws governing hydraulic fracturing.
Our operations in our natural sand proppant services business are dependent on our rights and ability to mine our properties and on our having renewed or received the required permits and approvals from governmental authorities and other third parties.
We hold numerous governmental, environmental, mining and other permits, water rights and approvals authorizing operations at our production facilities. For our extraction and processing in Wisconsin, the permitting process is subject to federal, state and local authority. For example, on the federal level, a Mine Identification Request must be filed and obtained before mining commences. If wetlands are implicated, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wetland Permit is required. At the state level, a series of permits are required related to air quality, wetlands, water quality (waste water and storm water), grading, endangered species and archaeological assessments in addition to other permits depending upon site specific factors and operational detail. At the local level, zoning, building, storm water, erosion control, wellhead protection, road usage and access are all regulated and require permitting to some degree. A non-metallic mining reclamation permit is required. A decision by a governmental agency or other third party to deny or delay issuing a new or renewed permit or approval, or to revoke or substantially modify an existing permit or approval, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue operations.
Title to, and the area of, mineral properties and water rights may also be disputed. Mineral properties sometimes contain claims or transfer histories that examiners cannot verify. A successful claim that we do not have title to our property or lack appropriate water rights could cause us to lose any rights to explore, develop and extract minerals, without compensation for our prior expenditures relating to such property. Our business may suffer a material adverse effect in the event we have title deficiencies.
In some instances, we have received access rights or easements from third parties, which allow for a more efficient operation than would exist without the access or easement. A third party could take action to suspend the access or easement, and any such action could be materially adverse to our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Penalties, fines or sanctions that may be imposed by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration could have a material adverse effect on our proppant production and sales business and our overall financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration, or MSHA, has primary regulatory jurisdiction over commercial silica operations, including quarries, surface mines, underground mines, and industrial mineral process facilities. In addition, MSHA representatives perform at least two annual inspections of our production facilities to ensure employee and general site safety. As a result of these and future inspections and alleged violations and potential violations, we and our suppliers could be subject to material fines, penalties or sanctions. Any of our production facilities or our suppliers mines could be subject to a temporary or extended shut down as a result of an alleged MSHA violation. Any such penalties, fines or sanctions could have a material adverse effect on our proppant production and sales business and our overall financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Increasing trucking regulations may increase our costs and negatively impact our results of operations.
In connection with our business operations, including the transportation and relocation of our oilfield service equipment and shipment of frac sand, we operate trucks and other heavy equipment. As such, we operate as a motor carrier in providing certain of our services and therefore are subject to regulation by the United States Department of Transportation and by various state agencies. These regulatory authorities exercise broad powers, governing activities such as the authorization to engage in motor carrier operations, driver licensing, insurance requirements, financial reporting and review of certain mergers, consolidations and acquisitions, and transportation of hazardous materials (HAZMAT). Our trucking operations are subject to possible regulatory and legislative changes that may increase our costs. Some of these possible changes include increasingly stringent
environmental regulations, changes in the hours of service regulations which govern the amount of time a driver may drive or work in any specific period, onboard black box recorder device requirements or limits on vehicle weight and size. Interstate motor carrier operations are subject to safety requirements prescribed by the United States Department of Transportation. To a large degree, intrastate motor carrier operations are subject to state safety regulations that mirror federal regulations. Matters such as the weight and dimensions of equipment are also subject to federal and state regulations. From time to time, various legislative proposals are introduced, including proposals to increase federal, state, or local taxes, including taxes on motor fuels, which may increase our costs or adversely impact the recruitment of drivers. We cannot predict whether, or in what form, any increase in such taxes applicable to us will be enacted.
Certain motor vehicle operators require registration with the Department of Transportation. This registration requires an acceptable operating record. The Department of Transportation periodically conducts compliance reviews and may revoke registration privileges based on certain safety performance criteria that could result in a suspension of operations.
Restrictions on drilling activities intended to protect certain species of wildlife may adversely affect our ability to conduct mining or drilling activities in some of the areas where we operate.
Oil and natural gas operations in our operating areas can be adversely affected by seasonal or permanent restrictions on mining or drilling activities designed to protect various wildlife, which may limit our ability to operate in protected areas. Permanent restrictions imposed to protect endangered species could prohibit drilling in certain areas or require the implementation of expensive mitigation measures. Additionally, the designation of previously unprotected species as threatened or endangered in areas where we operate could result in increased costs arising from species protection measures. Restrictions on oil and natural gas operations to protect wildlife could reduce demand for our services.
Conservation measures and technological advances could reduce demand for oil and natural gas and our services.
Fuel conservation measures, alternative fuel requirements, increasing consumer demand for alternatives to oil and natural gas, technological advances in fuel economy and energy generation devices could reduce demand for oil and natural gas, resulting in reduced demand for oilfield services. The impact of the changing demand for oil and natural gas services and products may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Losses and liabilities from uninsured or underinsured drilling and operating activities could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operations.
The operational insurance coverage we maintain for our business may not fully insure us against all risks, either because insurance is not available or because of the high premium costs relative to perceived risk. Further, any insurance obtained by us may not be adequate to cover any losses or liabilities and this insurance may not continue to be available at all or on terms which are acceptable to us. Insurance rates have in the past been subject to wide fluctuation and changes in coverage could result in less coverage, increases in cost or higher deductibles and retentions. Liabilities for which we are not insured, or which exceed the policy limits of our applicable insurance, could have a material adverse effect on our business activities, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to claims for personal injury and property damage, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We operate with most of our customers under master service agreements, or MSAs. We endeavor to allocate potential liabilities and risks between the parties in the MSAs. Generally, under our MSAs, including those
relating to our hydraulic fracturing services, we assume responsibility for, including control and removal of, pollution or contamination which originates above surface and originates from our equipment or services. Our customer assumes responsibility for, including control and removal of, all other pollution or contamination which may occur during operations, including that which may result from seepage or any other uncontrolled flow of drilling fluids. We may have liability in such cases if we are negligent or commit willful acts. Generally, our customers also agree to indemnify us against claims arising from their employees personal injury or death to the extent that, in the case of our hydraulic fracturing operations, their employees are injured or their properties are damaged by such operations, unless resulting from our gross negligence or willful misconduct. Similarly, we generally agree to indemnify our customers for liabilities arising from personal injury to or death of any of our employees, unless resulting from gross negligence or willful misconduct of the customer. In addition, our customers generally agree to indemnify us for loss or destruction of customer-owned property or equipment and in turn, we agree to indemnify our customers for loss or destruction of property or equipment we own. Losses due to catastrophic events, such as blowouts, are generally the responsibility of the customer. However, despite this general allocation of risk, we might not succeed in enforcing such contractual allocation, might incur an unforeseen liability falling outside the scope of such allocation or may be required to enter into an MSA with terms that vary from the above allocations of risk. As a result, we may incur substantial losses which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operation.
Loss of our information and computer systems could adversely affect our business.
We are heavily dependent on our information systems and computer based programs, including our well operations information and accounting data. If any of such programs or systems were to fail or create erroneous information in our hardware or software network infrastructure, whether due to cyberattack or otherwise, possible consequences include our loss of communication links and inability to automatically process commercial transactions or engage in similar automated or computerized business activities. Any such consequence could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We are subject to cyber security risks. A cyber incident could occur and result in information theft, data corruption, operational disruption and/or financial loss.
The oil and natural gas industry has become increasingly dependent on digital technologies to conduct certain processing activities. For example, we depend on digital technologies to perform many of our services and process and record financial and operating data. At the same time, cyber incidents, including deliberate attacks or unintentional events, have increased. The U.S. government has issued public warnings that indicate that energy assets might be specific targets of cyber security threats. Our technologies, systems and networks, and those of our vendors, suppliers and other business partners, may become the target of cyberattacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of proprietary and other information, or other disruption of our business operations. In addition, certain cyber incidents, such as surveillance, may remain undetected for an extended period. Our systems and insurance coverage for protecting against cyber security risks may not be sufficient. As cyber incidents continue to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any vulnerability to cyber incidents. Our insurance coverage for cyberattacks may not be sufficient to cover all the losses we may experience as a result of such cyberattacks.
Risks Inherent to Our Common Stock
Our two largest stockholders control a significant percentage of our common stock, and their interests may conflict with those of our other stockholders.
Wexford, through its affiliate MEH Sub LLC, and Gulfport beneficially own approximately 56.2% and 25.1%, respectively, of our outstanding common stock. As a result, Wexford alone controls, and Gulfport can exercise significant influence, over matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors,
changes to our organizational documents and significant corporate transactions. Further, two individuals who serve as our directors are affiliates of Wexford or Gulfport. This concentration of ownership and relationships with Wexford and Gulfport make it unlikely that any other holder or group of holders of our common stock will be able to affect the way we are managed or the direction of our business. In addition, we have engaged, and expect to continue to engage, in related party transactions involving Wexford and Gulfport, and certain companies they control. The interests of Wexford and Gulfport with respect to matters potentially or actually involving or affecting us, such as services provided, future acquisitions, financings and other corporate opportunities, and attempts to acquire us, may conflict with the interests of our other stockholders. This concentrated ownership will make it impossible for another company to acquire us and for you to receive any related takeover premium for your shares unless these stockholders approve the acquisition.
A significant reduction by Wexford or Gulfport of their ownership interests in us could adversely affect us.
We believe that Wexfords and Gulfports substantial ownership interests in us provides them with an economic incentive to assist us to be successful. Neither Wexford nor Gulfport is subject to any obligation to maintain its ownership interest in us and may elect at any time to sell all or a substantial portion of or otherwise reduce its ownership interest in us. If Wexford or Gulfport sells all or a substantial portion of its ownership interest in us, it may have less incentive to assist in our success and its affiliates that serve as members of our board of directors may resign. Such actions could adversely affect our ability to successfully implement our business strategies which could adversely affect our cash flows or results of operations.
We incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, which may significantly affect our financial condition.
We completed our IPO in October 2016. As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. These include costs associated with our public company reporting requirements and corporate governance requirements, including requirements under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, as well as rules implemented by the SEC, The Nasdaq Global Select Market and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. These rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs and made some activities more time-consuming and costly. These rules and regulations may also make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We estimate that we will incur approximately $2.5 million of incremental costs per year associated with being a publicly traded company; however, it is possible that our actual incremental costs of being a publicly traded company will be higher than we currently estimate. After we are no longer an emerging growth company, we expect to incur significant additional expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with those requirements applicable to companies that are not emerging growth companies, including Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. See Risks Related to Our Common StockWe will be subject to certain requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we are unable to timely comply with Section 404 or if the costs related to compliance are significant, our profitability, stock price, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected .
For so long as we are an emerging growth company we will not be required to comply with certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act and, for as long as we remain an emerging growth company, intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to
comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years following the completion of our IPO, although, if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of June 30 of any year, or we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period before the end of that five-year period, we would cease to be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31st. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we rely on certain exemptions available to emerging growth companies. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our common stock price may be more volatile.
We will be subject to certain requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we are unable to timely comply with Section 404 or if the costs related to compliance are significant, our profitability, stock price, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
We will be required to comply with certain provisions of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 requires that we document and test our internal control over financial reporting and issue managements assessment of our internal control over financial reporting. This section also requires that our independent registered public accounting firm opine on those internal controls upon becoming an accelerated filer, as defined in the SEC rules, or otherwise ceasing to qualify for an exemption from the requirement to provide auditors attestation on internal controls afforded to emerging growth companies under the JOBS Act. We are currently evaluating our existing controls against the standards adopted by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. During the course of our ongoing evaluation and integration of the internal control over financial reporting, we may identify areas requiring improvement, and we may have to design enhanced processes and controls to address issues identified through this review. For example, we anticipate the need to hire additional administrative and accounting personnel to conduct our financial reporting. We believe that the out-of-pocket costs, the diversion of managements attention from running the day-to-day operations and operational changes caused by the need to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could be significant. If the time and costs associated with such compliance exceed our current expectations and our results of operations could be adversely affected.
We cannot be certain at this time that we will be able to successfully complete the procedures, certification and attestation requirements of Section 404 or that we or our auditors will not identify material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to comply with the requirements of Section 404 or if we or our auditors identify and report such material weaknesses, the accuracy and timeliness of the filing of our annual and quarterly reports may be materially adversely affected and could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. In addition, a material weakness in the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting could result in an increased chance of fraud and the loss of customers, reduce our ability to obtain financing and require additional expenditures to comply with these requirements, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Since we are a controlled company for purposes of The Nasdaq Global Select Markets corporate governance requirements, our stockholders will not have, and may never have, the protections that these corporate governance requirements are intended to provide.
Since we are a controlled company for purposes of The Nasdaq Global Select Markets corporate governance requirements, we are not required to comply with the provisions requiring that a majority of our directors be independent, the compensation of our executives be determined by independent directors or nominees for election to our board of directors be selected by independent directors. If we choose to take
advantage of any or all of these exemptions, our stockholders may not have the protections that these rules are intended to provide.
The corporate opportunity provisions in our certificate of incorporation could enable Wexford, Gulfport or other affiliates of ours to benefit from corporate opportunities that might otherwise be available to us.
Subject to the limitations of applicable law, our certificate of incorporation, among other things:
|||permits us to enter into transactions with entities in which one or more of our officers or directors are financially or otherwise interested;|
|||permits any of our stockholders, officers or directors to conduct business that competes with us and to make investments in any kind of property in which we may make investments; and|
|||provides that if any director or officer of one of our affiliates who is also one of our officers or directors becomes aware of a potential business opportunity, transaction or other matter (other than one expressly offered to that director or officer in writing solely in his or her capacity as our director or officer), that director or officer will have no duty to communicate or offer that opportunity to us, and will be permitted to communicate or offer that opportunity to such affiliates and that director or officer will not be deemed to have (i) acted in a manner inconsistent with his or her fiduciary or other duties to us regarding the opportunity or (ii) acted in bad faith or in a manner inconsistent with our best interests.|
These provisions create the possibility that a corporate opportunity that would otherwise be available to us may be used for the benefit of one of our affiliates.
We have engaged in transactions with our affiliates and expect to do so in the future. The terms of such transactions and the resolution of any conflicts that may arise may not always be in our or our common stockholders best interests.
We have engaged in transactions and expect to continue to engage in transactions with affiliated companies. As described in our definitive proxy statement filed with the SEC on April 28, 2017 and in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as well as subsequent filings we make with the SEC, these transactions include, among others, agreements to provide our services and frac sand products to our affiliates and agreements pursuant to which our affiliates provide or will provide us with certain services, including administrative and advisory services and office space. Each of these entities is either controlled by or affiliated with Wexford or Gulfport, as the case may be, and the resolution of any conflicts that may arise in connection with such related party transactions, including pricing, duration or other terms of service, may not always be in our or our stockholders best interests because Wexford and/or Gulfport may have the ability to influence the outcome of these conflicts. For a discussion of potential conflicts, see Risks Inherent to Our Common StockOur two largest stockholders control a significant percentage of our common stock, and their interests may conflict with those of our other stockholders .
Prior to the IPO, there was no public market for our common stock and if the price of our common stock fluctuates significantly, your investment could lose value.
Prior to the completion of the IPO in October 2016, there was no public market for our common stock. Although our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, an active public market for our common stock may not be maintained. If an active public market for our common stock is not maintained, the trading price and liquidity of our common stock will be materially and adversely affected. If there is a thin trading market or float for our common stock, the market price for our common stock may fluctuate significantly more than the stock market as a whole. Without a large float, our common stock is less liquid than the securities of companies with broader public ownership and, as a result, the trading prices of our common
stock may be more volatile. In addition, in the absence of an active public trading market, investors may be unable to liquidate their investment in us. In addition, the stock market is subject to significant price and volume fluctuations, and the price of our common stock could fluctuate widely in response to several factors, including:
|||our quarterly or annual operating results;|
|||changes in our earnings estimates;|
|||investment recommendations by securities analysts following our business or our industry;|
|||additions or departures of key personnel;|
|||changes in the business, earnings estimates or market perceptions of our competitors;|
|||our failure to achieve operating results consistent with securities analysts projections;|
|||changes in industry, general market or economic conditions; and|
|||announcements of legislative or regulatory change.|
The stock market has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations in recent years that have significantly affected the quoted prices of the securities of many companies, including companies in our industry. The changes often appear to occur without regard to specific operating performance. The price of our common stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with our company and these fluctuations could materially reduce the price for our common stock.
Wexford and Gulfport beneficially own a substantial amount of our common stock and may sell such common stock in the public or private markets. Sales of these shares of common stock or sales of substantial amounts of our common stock by other stockholders, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock.
As of October 30, 2017, Wexford and Gulfport beneficially owned 56.2% and 25.1% shares of our common stock, respectively. Sales of these shares of common stock or sales of substantial amounts of our common stock by other stockholders, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the price of our common stock to decline. In addition, the sale of these shares could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional common or preferred stock.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, the price of our stock could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover our company downgrades our stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.
We may issue preferred stock whose terms could adversely affect the voting power or value of our common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue, without the approval of our stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designations, preferences, limitations and relative rights, including preferences over our common stock respecting dividends and distributions, as our board of directors may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could adversely impact the voting power or value of our common stock. For example, we might grant holders of preferred stock the right to elect
some number of our directors in all events or on the happening of specified events or the right to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we might assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of the common stock.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law make it more difficult to effect a change in control of the company, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.
The existence of some provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware corporate law could delay or prevent a change in control of our company, even if that change would be beneficial to our stockholders. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may make acquiring control of our company difficult, including:
|||provisions regulating the ability of our stockholders to nominate directors for election or to bring matters for action at annual meetings of our stockholders;|
|||limitations on the ability of our stockholders to call a special meeting and act by written consent;|
|||the ability of our board of directors to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws, and the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained for stockholders to amend our bylaws;|
|||the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained to remove directors;|
|||the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained to amend our certificate of incorporation; and|
|||the authorization given to our board of directors to issue and set the terms of preferred stock without the approval of our stockholders.|
These provisions also could discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. As a result, these provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders, which may limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation designates courts in the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that, subject to limited exceptions, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for:
|||Any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;|
|||Any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders;|
|||Any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law; or|
|||Any other action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.|
In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that if any action specified above (each is referred to herein as a covered proceeding), is filed in a court other than the specified Delaware courts without the approval of our board of directors (each is referred to herein as a foreign action), the claiming party will be deemed to have consented to (i) the personal jurisdiction of the specified Delaware courts in connection with any action
brought in any such courts to enforce the exclusive forum provision described above and (ii) having service of process made upon such claiming party in any such enforcement action by service upon such claiming partys counsel in the foreign action as agent for such claiming party. These provisions may limit a stockholders ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our certificate of incorporation inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the covered proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future, and therefore only appreciation of the price of our common stock will provide a return to our stockholders.
We currently anticipate that we will retain all future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. We do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of cash dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. In addition, the terms of our revolving credit facility prohibit us from paying dividends and making other distributions. As a result, only appreciation of the price of our common stock, which may not occur, will provide a return to our stockholders.
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the common stock by us for general corporate purposes, including without limitation repaying or refinancing all or a portion of our existing short-term and long-term debt, making acquisitions of assets, businesses or securities, capital expenditures and for working capital. The precise amount and timing of the application of such proceeds will depend upon our funding requirements and the availability and cost of other capital. Pending any specific application of the net proceeds, we intend to invest our net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade securities, interest-bearing securities or guaranteed obligations of the United States or its agencies.
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock by the selling stockholders.
Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. has never declared or paid any cash dividends on its capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant. In addition, the terms of our existing outstanding borrowings restrict the payment of dividends to the holders of our common stock and any other equity holders.
The shares of our common stock covered by this prospectus that may be sold from time to time in the secondary offering are being offered by the selling stockholders listed in the table below. This prospectus will not cover subsequent sales of common stock purchased from the selling stockholders named in this prospectus.
On October 12, 2016, prior to the completion of the IPO, we issued (i) 20,615,700 shares of our common stock to Mammoth Energy Holdings LLC, which we refer to as Mammoth Holdings, an affiliate of Wexford Capital LP, which we refer to as Wexford, (ii) 9,150,000 shares of our common stock to Gulfport Energy Corporation, which we refer to as Gulfport, and (iii) 234,300 shares of our common stock to Rhino Exploration LLC, which we refer to as Rhino, in connection with their contribution of their respective membership interests in Mammoth Energy Partners LLC to us. Of these shares, Mammoth Holdings, Gulfport and Rhino sold 171,797, 76,250 and 1,953 shares of our common stock, respectively, in the IPO. Following such sale in the IPO, Mammoth Holdings, Gulfport and Rhino held 20,443,903, 9,073,750 and 232,347 shares of our common stock, respectively. In June 2017, all of the shares held by Mammoth Holdings were transferred to MEH Sub LLC, which we refer to as MEH Sub, an affiliate of Wexford, in an internal reorganization of certain Wexford affiliates. Each of Wexford and Gulfport also received 6,667 restricted stock units, or RSUs, assigned to it by its director designee, of which 4,445 RSUs have vested and the remaining 2,222 RSUs will vest on October 19, 2018. Further, on June 5, 2017, we issued an aggregate of (i) 4,565,416 shares of our common stock to MEH Sub and certain other affiliates of Wexford (all of which shares are currently held by MEH Sub following an internal reorganization of certain Wexford affiliates), (ii) 2,098,137 shares of our common stock to Gulfport and (iii) 336,447 shares of our common stock to Rhino as consideration for our acquisitions of all outstanding membership interests in Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC (which owns Taylor Frac), Stingray Energy Services LLC and Stingray Cementing LLC.
In connection with the closing of the IPO on October 19, 2016, we entered into two registration rights agreements, one with Mammoth Holdings, and the other with Rhino, pursuant to which Mammoth Holdings and its affiliates, including MEH Sub, have certain demand and piggyback registration rights and Rhino has certain piggyback registration rights with respect to shares of common stock owned by such entities or their affiliates. Also, in connection with the IPO on October 19, 2016, we entered into an investor rights agreement with Gulfport in which Gulfport was granted certain demand and piggyback registration rights, certain information rights and the right to nominate one of our directors for so long as Gulfport owns 10% or more of our outstanding common stock. Such nominee, if elected to our board of directors, is also entitled to serve on each committee of the board of directors if he or she satisfies the independence and other requirements for service on the applicable committee. So long as Gulfport has the right to designate a nominee to our board of directors and there is no Gulfport nominee actually serving as one of our directors, Gulfport has the right to appoint one individual as an advisor to the board of directors who shall be entitled to attend board and committee meetings. One of our directors, Paul Heerwagen, is Gulfports nominee pursuant to the investor rights agreement. Additional information regarding our material relationships and related party transactions with the selling stockholders is set forth under the heading Certain Relationships and Related Transactions in our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, filed by us with the SEC on April 28, 2017, as updated or supplemented by subsequent filings we make with the SEC, and the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, which information is incorporated herein by reference.
We have prepared this prospectus and the registration statement of which it is a part to fulfill our registration requirements with respect to an aggregate of 36,763,334 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the selling stockholders. Pursuant to the registration rights agreements and the investor rights agreement, we will pay all expenses relating to the registration and offering of these shares, except that the selling stockholders will pay any underwriting fees, discounts or commissions. Pursuant to the terms of the registration rights agreements and the investor rights agreement, we agreed to indemnify the selling stockholders against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and the selling stockholders have agreed to indemnify us against
certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, which may arise from any written information furnished to us by the selling stockholders specifically for use in this prospectus.
No offer or sale under this prospectus may be made by a stockholder unless that stockholder is listed in the table below, in a supplement to this prospectus or in an amendment to the related registration statement that has become effective. We may supplement or amend this prospectus to include additional selling stockholders upon provision of all required information to us and subject to the terms of these registration rights agreements and investor rights agreement.
The following table sets forth the maximum number of shares of our common stock that may be sold by each selling stockholder. We cannot predict when or in what amount the selling stockholders may sell any of the shares offered by the selling stockholders in this prospectus, if at all. The table (or the introductory paragraphs to the table, as applicable) also sets forth the name of each selling stockholder, the nature of any position, office or other material relationship which such selling stockholder has had, within the past three years, with us or with any of our predecessors or affiliates, and the number of shares of our common stock to be owned by such selling stockholder after completion of the offering. We are filing the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part pursuant to contractual obligations with the selling stockholders, as described in more detail above.
We prepared the table based on information provided to us by the selling stockholders. We have not sought to independently verify such information. Additionally, the selling stockholders may have sold or transferred some or all of its shares of our common stock in transactions exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act since the date on which the information in the table was provided to us. Other information about the selling stockholders may also change over time.
Except as otherwise indicated, we believe that each of the stockholders named in this table has sole voting and dispositive power with respect to the shares indicated as beneficially owned.
Prior to Offering(1)
Shares of Common Stock
Being Offered Hereby
Shares of Common Stock
After Completion of the
Name of Beneficial Owner
MEH Sub LLC(2)
Gulfport Energy Corporation(3)
Rhino Exploration LLC(4)
|(1)||Percentage of beneficial ownership is based upon 44,502,223 shares of common stock outstanding as of October 30, 2017. For purposes of this table, a person or group of persons is deemed to have beneficial ownership of any shares of common stock which such person has the right to acquire within 60 days. For purposes of computing the percentage of outstanding shares of common stock held by each person or group of persons named above, any security that such person or group of persons has the right to acquire within 60 days is deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership for such person or persons, but is not deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person.|
Wexford is the manager of MEH Sub LLC, which is one of the selling stockholders in this offering. The number of shares of common stock that may be sold by MEH Sub pursuant to this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement includes 6,667 RSUs granted under our equity incentive plan, which were assigned to Wexford by Marc McCarthy, our Chairman of the Board, under the terms of his employment with Wexford, of which 4,445 RSUs have vested and 2,222 RSUs will vest on October 19, 2018. As manager of MEH Sub, Wexford has the exclusive authority to, among other things, purchase, hold and dispose of its assets. Wexford may, by reason of its status as the manager of MEH Sub, be deemed to
|beneficially own the interest in the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Wexford GP LLC, which is referred to as Wexford GP, may, by reason of its status as general partner of Wexford, be deemed to beneficially own the interest in the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Each of Charles E. Davidson and Joseph M. Jacobs may, by reason of his status as a controlling person of Wexford GP, be deemed to beneficially own the interests in the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Each of Charles E. Davidson, Joseph M. Jacobs, Wexford GP and Wexford share the power to vote and to dispose of shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Each of Messrs. Davidson and Jacobs disclaims beneficial ownership of the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub and Wexford, except to the extent of their respective personal ownership interests in MEH Sub or any members of MEH Sub. Wexford has offices at 411 West Putnam Ave, Greenwich Connecticut 06830 and 777 South Flagler Drive, Suite 602 East, West Palm Beach Florida 33401.|
|(3)||The number of shares of common stock that may be sold by Gulfport pursuant to this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement includes 6,667 RSUs granted under our equity incentive plan, which were assigned to Gulfport by Paul Heerwagen, one of our directors, under the terms of his employment with Gulfport, of which 4,445 RSUs have vested and 2,222 RSUs will vest on October 19, 2018. Gulfports address is 3001 Quail Springs Parkway, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73134.|
|(4)||Rhinos address is 424 Lewis Hargett Circle, Suite 250, Lexington, Kentucky.|
Each of the selling stockholders named in this prospectus may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act.
The following description of our common stock, certificate of incorporation and our bylaws are summaries thereof and are qualified by reference to our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws, as amended and restated, copies of which have been filed with the SEC as exhibits and are incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 20,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. Our common stock has been approved for listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol TUSK.
Holders of shares of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Shares of common stock do not have cumulative voting rights, which means that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voting for the election of the board of directors can elect all the directors to be elected at that time and, in such event, the holders of the remaining shares will be unable to elect any directors to be elected at that time. Our certificate of incorporation denies stockholders any preemptive rights to acquire or subscribe for any stock, obligation, warrant or other securities of ours. Holders of shares of our common stock have no redemption or conversion rights nor are they entitled to the benefits of any sinking fund provisions.
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of shares of common stock shall be entitled to receive, pro rata, all the remaining assets of our company available for distribution to our stockholders after payment of our debts and after there shall have been paid to or set aside for the holders of capital stock ranking senior to common stock in respect of rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up the full preferential amounts to which they are respectively entitled.
Holders of record of shares of common stock are entitled to receive dividends when and if declared by the board of directors out of any assets legally available for such dividends, subject to both the rights of all outstanding shares of capital stock ranking senior to the common stock in respect of dividends and to any dividend restrictions contained in debt agreements. All outstanding shares of common stock and any shares sold and issued by us pursuant to this prospectus will be fully paid and nonassessable.
Our board of directors is authorized to issue up to 20,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and designate:
|||the distinctive serial designation and number of shares of the series;|
|||the voting powers and the right, if any, to elect a director or directors;|
|||the terms of office of any directors the holders of preferred shares are entitled to elect;|
|||the dividend rights, if any;|
|||the terms of redemption and the amount of, and provisions regarding, any sinking fund for the purchase or redemption thereof;|
|||the liquidation preferences and the amounts payable on dissolution or liquidation;|
|||the terms and conditions under which shares of the series may or shall be converted into any other series or class of stock or debt of the corporation; and|
|||any other terms or provisions which the board of directors is legally authorized to fix or alter.|
We do not need stockholder approval to issue or fix the terms of the preferred stock. The actual effect of the authorization of the preferred stock upon your rights as holders of common stock is unknown until our board of directors determines the specific rights of owners of any series of preferred stock. Depending upon the rights granted to any series of preferred stock, your voting power, liquidation preference or other rights could be adversely affected. Preferred stock may be issued in acquisitions or for other corporate purposes. Issuance in connection with a stockholder rights plan or other takeover defense could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or of discouraging a third party from acquiring, control of our company. We have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.
Related Party Transactions and Corporate Opportunities
Subject to the limitations of applicable law, our certificate of incorporation, among other things:
|||permits us to enter into transactions with entities in which one or more of our officers or directors are financially or otherwise interested so long as it has been approved by our board of directors;|
|||permits any of our stockholders, officers or directors to conduct business that competes with us and to make investments in any kind of property in which we may make investments; and|
|||provides that if any director or officer of one of our affiliates who is also one of our officers or directors becomes aware of a potential business opportunity, transaction or other matter (other than one expressly offered to that director or officer in writing solely in his or her capacity as our director or officer), that director or officer will have no duty to communicate or offer that opportunity to us, and will be permitted to communicate or offer that opportunity to such affiliates and that director or officer will not be deemed to have (i) acted in a manner inconsistent with his or her fiduciary or other duties to us regarding the opportunity or (ii) acted in bad faith or in a manner inconsistent with our best interests.|
Anti-takeover Effects of Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Our Bylaws
Some provisions of our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws contain provisions that could make it more difficult to acquire us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, or to remove our incumbent officers and directors. These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging such proposals because negotiation of such proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Undesignated preferred stock . The ability to authorize and issue undesignated preferred stock may enable our board of directors to render more difficult or discourage an attempt to change control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, the board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in our best interest, the board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group.
Stockholder meetings . Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.
Requirements for advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals . Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors.
Stockholder action by written consent . Our bylaws provide that, except as may otherwise be provided with respect to the rights of the holders of preferred stock, no action that is required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders at any annual or special meeting may be effected by written consent of stockholders in lieu of a meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that prior to the date that Wexford ceases to beneficially own (directly or indirectly) more than 50% of our outstanding shares of common stock, any action required or permitted to be taken by stockholders at any meeting of stockholders may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, is signed by holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum voting power that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted. This provision, which may not be amended except by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, makes it difficult for stockholders to initiate or effect an action by written consent that is opposed by our board.
Amendment of the bylaws . Under Delaware law, the power to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws is conferred upon the stockholders. A corporation may, however, in its certificate of incorporation also confer upon the board of directors the power to adopt, amend or repeal its bylaws. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws grant our board the power to adopt, amend and repeal our bylaws at any regular or special meeting of the board on the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office. Our stockholders may adopt, amend or repeal our bylaws but only at any regular or special meeting of stockholders by an affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.
Removal of Director . Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that members of our board of directors may only be removed by the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.
Amendment of the Certificate of Incorporation . Our certificate of incorporation provides that, in addition to any other vote that may be required by law or any preferred stock designation, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, is required to amend, alter or repeal, or adopt any provision as part of our certificate of incorporation inconsistent with the provisions of our certificate of incorporation dealing with distributions on our common stock, related party transactions, our board of directors, our bylaws, meetings of our stockholders or amendment of our certificate of incorporation.
The provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions which stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
Our certificate of incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name, actions against directors, officers and other employees for breach of a fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought only in specified courts in the State of Delaware. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors, officers and other employees. See Risk FactorsRisks Inherent to Our Common StockOur certificate of incorporation designates courts in the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees .
Transfer Agent and Registrar
Computershare Trust Company, NA. is the transfer agent and registrar for our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol TUSK.
The following is a general discussion of material U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder (as defined below). This discussion deals only with common stock purchased in this offering that is held as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code (generally, property held for investment), by a non-U.S. holder. Except as modified for estate tax purposes, the term non-U.S. holder means a beneficial owner of our common stock that is not a U.S. person or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income and estate tax purposes. A U.S. person is any of the following:
|||an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;|
|||a corporation (including any entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;|
|||an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or|
|||trust, if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust, or if it has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.|
An individual may generally be treated as a resident of the United States in any calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes, by, among other ways, being present in the United States for at least 31 days in that calendar year and for an aggregate of at least 183 days during a three-year period ending in the current calendar year. For purposes of the 183-day calculation, all of the days present in the current year, one-third of the days present in the immediately preceding year and one-sixth of the days present in the second preceding year are counted. Residents are taxed for U.S. federal income tax purposes as if they were U.S. citizens.
This discussion is based upon provisions of the Code, and Treasury Regulations, administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as of the date hereof. Those authorities may be changed, perhaps retroactively, so as to result in U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences different from those discussed below. No ruling has been or will be sought from the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, with respect to the matters discussed below, and there can be no assurance the IRS will not take a contrary position regarding the tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our common stock, or that such contrary position would not be sustained by a court. This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income and estate taxation, including the impact of the unearned income Medicare contribution tax and does not deal with other U.S. federal tax laws (such as gift tax laws) or non-U.S., state, local or other tax considerations that may be relevant to non-U.S. holders in light of their personal circumstances. In addition, this discussion does not address tax considerations applicable to investors that may be subject to special treatment under the U.S. federal income tax laws, such as (without limitation):
|||certain former U.S. citizens or residents;|
|||shareholders that hold our common stock as part of a straddle, constructive sale transaction, synthetic security, hedge, conversion transaction or other integrated investment or risk reduction transaction;|
|||shareholders that acquired our common stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation or through a tax-qualified retirement plan;|
|||shareholders that are partnerships or entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes or other pass- through entities or owners thereof;|
|||shareholders that own, or are deemed to own, more than five percent (5%) of our outstanding common stock (except to the extent specifically set forth below);|
|||shareholders subject to the alternative minimum tax;|
|||financial institutions, banks and thrifts;|
|||real estate investment trusts;|
|||controlled foreign corporations, passive foreign investment companies or corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;|
|||broker-dealers or dealers in securities or foreign currencies; and|
|||traders in securities that use a mark-to-market method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.|
If a partnership (including an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds our common stock, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership (including an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holding our common stock, you should consult your tax advisor.
THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND SHOULD NOT BE VIEWED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS CONSIDERING THE PURCHASE OF OUR COMMON STOCK SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATION AS WELL AS THE APPLICABILITY AND EFFECT OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAX LAWS OR TAX TREATIES AND ANY OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS.
Distributions on Common Stock
We do not expect to pay any cash distributions on our common stock in the foreseeable future. However, in the event we do make such cash distributions, these distributions generally will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If any such distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a non-taxable return of capital to the extent of the non-U.S. holders tax basis in our common stock and thereafter as capital gain from the sale or exchange of such common stock. See Gain on Disposition of Common Stock below. Dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder of our common stock that are not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holders conduct of a trade or business within the United States will be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate, or if an income tax treaty applies, a lower rate specified by the treaty. In order to receive a reduced treaty rate, a non-U.S. holder must provide to us or our withholding agent IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or applicable substitute or successor form for either) properly certifying eligibility for the reduced rate. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide us or our withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced treaty rate, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under an applicable income tax treaty.
Dividends that are effectively connected with a non-U.S. holders conduct of a trade or business in the United States and, if an income tax treaty so requires, are attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the United States, are taxed on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates and in the manner applicable to U.S. persons. In that case, we or our withholding agent will not have to withhold U.S. federal withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder complies with applicable certification and disclosure requirements (which may generally be met by providing an IRS Form W-8ECI). In addition, a branch profits tax may be
imposed at a 30% rate (or a lower rate specified under an applicable income tax treaty) on a foreign corporations effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year, as adjusted for certain items. Non-U.S. holders should consult any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.
Gain on Disposition of Common Stock
Subject to the discussion below regarding backup withholding, a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain recognized on a disposition of our common stock unless:
|||the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holders conduct of a trade or business in the United States and, if an income tax treaty applies, is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the United States, in which case, the gain will be taxed on a net income basis at the U.S. federal income tax rates and in the manner applicable to U.S. persons, and if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, the branch profits tax described above may also apply;|
|||the non-U.S. holder is an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and meets other requirements, in which case, the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a flat 30% tax on the gain derived from the disposition (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses, provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses; or|
|||we are or have been a United States real property holding corporation, or USRPHC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes at any time during the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock.|
Generally, a corporation is a USRPHC if the fair market value of its United States real property interests equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests and its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. We believe we currently are a USRPHC. If we are or become a USRPHC, a non-U.S. holder nonetheless will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding in respect of any gain realized on a sale or other disposition of our common stock so long as (i) our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market for U.S. federal income tax purposes and (ii) such non-U.S. holder does not actually or constructively own, at any time during the applicable period described in the third bullet point, above, more than 5% of our outstanding common stock. We expect our common stock to be regularly traded on an established securities market, although we cannot guarantee it will be so traded. Accordingly, a non-U.S. holder who actually or constructively owns more than 5% of our common stock would be subject to U.S. federal income tax and withholding in respect of any gain realized on any sale or other disposition of common stock (taxed in the same manner as gain that is effectively connected income, except that the branch profits tax would not apply). Non-U.S. holders should consult their own advisor about the consequences that could result if we are, or become, a USRPHC.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding Tax
Dividends paid to you will generally be subject to information reporting and may be subject to U.S. backup withholding. You will be exempt from backup withholding if you properly provide a Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI certifying under penalties of perjury that you are a non-U.S. holder or otherwise meet documentary evidence requirements for establishing that you are a non-U.S. holder, or you otherwise establish an exemption. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividends and the tax withheld with respect to such dividends also may be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which you reside.
The gross proceeds from the disposition of our common stock may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding. If you receive payments of the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock to or through a U.S. office of a broker, the payment will be subject to both U.S. backup withholding and information reporting unless you properly provide a Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI certifying under penalties of perjury that
you are a non-U.S. person (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that you are a U.S. person) or you otherwise establish an exemption. If you sell your common stock outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker and the sales proceeds are paid to you outside the United States, then the U.S. backup withholding and information reporting requirements generally will not apply to that payment. However, U.S. information reporting, but not backup withholding, will generally apply to a payment of sales proceeds, even if that payment is made outside the United States, if you sell your common stock through a non-U.S. office of a broker that has certain relationships with the United States unless the broker has documentary evidence in its files that you are a non-U.S. person and certain other conditions are met, or you otherwise establish an exemption.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax. You may obtain a refund or credit of any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules that exceed your U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.
Federal Estate Tax
Our common stock that is owned (or treated as owned) by an individual who is not a citizen or resident of the United States (as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) at the time of death will be included in such individuals gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, unless an applicable estate tax treaty provides otherwise, and, therefore, may be subject to U.S. federal estate tax.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, a 30% withholding tax will generally apply to dividends on, or gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, common stock paid to a foreign financial institution unless the foreign financial institution (i) enters into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury to, among other things, undertake to identify accounts held by certain U.S. persons or U.S.-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent it from complying with these reporting and other requirements, (ii) is resident in a country that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement with the United States in relation to such withholding and information reporting and the financial entity complies with related information reporting requirements of such country, or (iii) qualifies for an exemption from these rules. A foreign financial institution generally is a foreign entity that (i) accepts deposits in the ordinary course of a banking or similar business, (ii) as a substantial portion of its business, holds financial assets for the benefit of one or more other persons, or (iii) is an investment entity that, in general, primarily conducts as a business on behalf of customers trading in certain financial instruments, individual or collective portfolio management or otherwise investing, administering, or managing funds, money or certain financial assets on behalf of other persons. In addition, FATCA generally imposes a 30% withholding tax on the same types of payments to a non-financial foreign entity unless the entity certifies that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners, furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner, or otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. In either case, such payments would include U.S.-source dividends and the gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock that can produce U.S.-source dividends. FATCAs withholding obligations generally will apply to payments of dividends on our common stock, and to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock made on or after January 1, 2019.
The final Treasury regulations and subsequent guidance provide detailed guidance regarding the reporting, withholding and other obligations under FATCA. Investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible impact of the FATCA rules on their investment in our common stock, including, without limitation, the process and deadlines for meeting the applicable requirements to prevent the imposition of the 30% withholding tax under FATCA.
THE SUMMARY OF MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS ABOVE IS INCLUDED FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. POTENTIAL PURCHASERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK ARE URGED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS TO DETERMINE THE U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL AND NON-U.S. TAX CONSIDERATIONS OF PURCHASING, OWNING AND DISPOSING OF OUR COMMON STOCK.
Initial Offering and Sale of Common Stock
We and the selling stockholders, which as used in this prospectus includes donees, pledges, transferees or other successors in interest selling common stock received after the date of this prospectus from a selling stockholder as a gift, pledge, distribution or other transfer, may, from time to time, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of any or all of the common stock offered by this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement on any stock exchange, market or trading facility on which such common stock is traded or in private transactions. These dispositions may be at fixed prices, at prevailing market prices at the time of sale, at prices related to the prevailing market price, at varying prices determined at the time of sale or at negotiated prices.
We and the selling stockholders may use any one or more of the following methods when disposing of the offered common stock:
|||ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker-dealer solicits purchasers;|
|||block trades in which the broker-dealer will attempt to sell the common stock as agent, but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;|
|||purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;|
|||an exchange distribution in accordance with the rules of the applicable exchange;|
|||privately negotiated transactions;|
|||sales deemed to be an at the market offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act, which includes sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Global Select Market or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange;|
|||short sales effected after the date of this prospectus;|
|||through the writing or settlement of options or other hedging transactions, whether through an options exchange or otherwise;|
|||broker-dealers may agree to sell a specified number of such common stock at a stipulated price per share;|
|||a combination of any such methods of sale; and|
|||any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law.|
The selling stockholders also may resell all or a portion of the common stock in open market transactions in reliance upon Rule 144 under the Securities Act.
If underwriters are used to sell the common stock, we and the selling stockholder, if any, will enter into an underwriting agreement or similar agreement with them at the time of the sale to them. In that event, underwriters may receive compensation from us and the selling stockholder, if any, in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of the common stock for whom they may act as agent.
To the extent required by applicable law, a prospectus supplement relating to the common stock will set forth:
|||the offering terms, including the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents;|
|||the number or amount of the common stock involved, the purchase price of such common stock and the proceeds to us and the selling stockholder, if any, from such sale;|
|||any underwriting discounts, concessions, commissions and other items constituting compensation to underwriters, dealers or agents;|
|||any initial public offering price;|
|||any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid by underwriters or dealers to other dealers; and|
|||any securities exchanges on which the common stock may be listed.|
The common stock may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more of such firms. Unless otherwise set forth in an applicable prospectus supplement, the obligations of underwriters or dealers to purchase the common stock will be subject to certain conditions precedent and the underwriters or dealers will be obligated to purchase all the securities if any are purchased. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid by underwriters or dealers to other dealers may be changed from time to time.
The selling stockholders and any underwriters, dealers or agents that are involved in selling the common stock may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act in connection with such sales. In such event, any commissions received by them and any profit on the resale of the common stock purchased by them may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts under the Securities Act.
In order to comply with the securities laws of some states, the shares sold in those jurisdictions may only be sold through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in some states, the shares may not be sold unless the shares have been registered or qualified for sale in that state or an exemption from registration or qualification is available and is complied with.
The common stock may be sold directly by us, a selling stockholder or through agents designated by us from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of the common stock in respect of which this prospectus and a prospectus supplement is delivered will be named, and any commissions payable by us or the selling stockholder to such agent will be set forth, in any required prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment.
If so indicated in the prospectus supplement, we or a selling stockholder will authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers from certain specified institutions to purchase common stock from us or the selling stockholder at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. Such contracts will be subject to any conditions set forth in the prospectus supplement and the prospectus supplement will set forth the commissions payable for solicitation of such contracts. The underwriters and other persons soliciting such contracts will have no responsibility for the validity or performance of any such contracts.
Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled under agreements entered into with us or a selling stockholder to be indemnified by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution by us to payments which they may be required to make. The terms and conditions of such indemnification will be described in an applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us or the selling stockholder in the ordinary course of business.
Any underwriters to whom common stock is sold by us or a selling stockholder for public offering and sale may make a market in such common stock, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for any common stock.
Certain persons participating in any offering of common stock may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the common stock offered. In connection with any such offering, the underwriters, dealers or agents, as the case may be, may purchase and sell common stock in the open market. These transactions may include overallotment and stabilizing transactions and purchases to cover syndicate short positions created in connection with the offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of certain bids or purchases for the purpose of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock and syndicate short positions involve the sale by the underwriters, dealers or agents, as the case may be, of a greater number of common stock than they are required to purchase from us in the offering. The underwriters may also impose a penalty bid, whereby selling concessions allowed to syndicate members or other broker-dealers for the common stock sold for their account may be reclaimed by the syndicate if such common stock is repurchased by the syndicate in stabilizing or covering transactions. These activities may stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the common stock, which may be higher than the price that might otherwise prevail in the open market, and if commenced, may be discontinued at any time. These transactions may be effected on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise. These activities will be described in more detail in the sections entitled Plan of Distribution or Underwriting in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the common stock to be offered hereby offered by us and/or the selling stockholders will be passed upon by Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP. If legal matters in connection with offerings made by this prospectus are passed on by counsel for the underwriters, dealers or agents, if any, that counsel will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The audited consolidated financial statements of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the report of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
The audited combined financial statements of Stingray Energy Services LLC and affiliate incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the report of Grant Thornton LLP, independent certified public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
The consolidated statement of net liabilities in liquidation of Chieftain Sand and Proppant, LLC and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2016, and the related consolidated statement of changes in net liabilities in liquidation for the period from December 13, 2016 to December 31, 2016, the consolidated balance sheets as of December 12, 2016 and December 31, 2015, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in members deficient, and cash flows for the period from January 1, 2016 to December 12, 2016 and for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2015, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent auditors, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
The audited historical consolidated financial statements of Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC and its subsidiaries included in Exhibit 99.2 of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.s current report on Form 8-K dated October 26, 2017 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
The following is a glossary of certain oil and natural gas industry terms used or incorporated by reference in this prospectus:
Blowout . An uncontrolled flow of reservoir fluids into the wellbore, and sometimes catastrophically to the surface. A blowout may consist of salt water, oil, natural gas or a mixture of these. Blowouts can occur in all types of exploration and production operations, not just during drilling operations. If reservoir fluids flow into another formation and do not flow to the surface, the result is called an underground blowout. If the well experiencing a blowout has significant open-hole intervals, it is possible that the well will bridge over (or seal itself with rock fragments from collapsing formations) down-hole and intervention efforts will be averted.
Bottomhole assembly . The lower portion of the drillstring, consisting of (from the bottom up in a vertical well) the bit, bit sub, a mud motor (in certain cases), stabilizers, drill collar, heavy-weight drillpipe, jarring devices (jars) and crossovers for various threadforms. The bottomhole assembly must provide force for the bit to break the rock (weight on bit), survive a hostile mechanical environment and provide the driller with directional control of the well. Oftentimes the assembly includes a mud motor, directional drilling and measuring equipment, measurements-while-drilling tools, logging-while-drilling tools and other specialized devices.
Cementing . To prepare and pump cement into place in a wellbore.
Coiled tubing . A long, continuous length of pipe wound on a spool. The pipe is straightened prior to pushing into a wellbore and rewound to coil the pipe back onto the transport and storage spool. Depending on the pipe diameter (1 in. to 4 1/2 in.) and the spool size, coiled tubing can range from 2,000 ft. to 20,000 ft. (610 m to 6,096 m) or greater length.
Completion . A generic term used to describe the assembly of down-hole tubulars and equipment required to enable safe and efficient production from an oil or gas well. The point at which the completion process begins may depend on the type and design of the well.
Directional drilling . The intentional deviation of a wellbore from the path it would naturally take. This is accomplished through the use of whipstocks, bottomhole assembly (BHA) configurations, instruments to measure the path of the wellbore in three-dimensional space, data links to communicate measurements taken down-hole to the surface, mud motors and special BHA components and drill bits, including rotary steerable systems, and drill bits. The directional driller also exploits drilling parameters such as weight on bit and rotary speed to deflect the bit away from the axis of the existing wellbore. In some cases, such as drilling steeply dipping formations or unpredictable deviation in conventional drilling operations, directional-drilling techniques may be employed to ensure that the hole is drilled vertically. While many techniques can accomplish this, the general concept is simple: point the bit in the direction that one wants to drill. The most common way is through the use of a bend near the bit in a down-hole steerable mud motor. The bend points the bit in a direction different from the axis of the wellbore when the entire drillstring is not rotating. By pumping mud through the mud motor, the bit turns while the drillstring does not rotate, allowing the bit to drill in the direction it points. When a particular wellbore direction is achieved, that direction may be maintained by rotating the entire drillstring (including the bent section) so that the bit does not drill in a single direction off the wellbore axis, but instead sweeps around and its net direction coincides with the existing wellbore. Rotary steerable tools allow steering while rotating, usually with higher rates of penetration and ultimately smoother boreholes.
Down-hole . Pertaining to or in the wellbore (as opposed to being on the surface).
Down-hole motor . A drilling motor located in the drill string above the drilling bit powered by the flow of drilling mud. Down-hole motors are used to increase the speed and efficiency of the drill bit or can be used to steer the bit in directional drilling operations. Drilling motors have become very popular because of horizontal and directional drilling applications and the increase of day rates for drilling rigs.
Drilling rig . The machine used to drill a wellbore.
Drillpipe or Drill pipe . Tubular steel conduit fitted with special threaded ends called tool joints. The drillpipe connects the rig surface equipment with the bottomhole assembly and the bit, both to pump drilling fluid to the bit and to be able to raise, lower and rotate the bottomhole assembly and bit.
Drillstring or Drill string . The combination of the drillpipe, the bottomhole assembly and any other tools used to make the drill bit turn at the bottom of the wellbore.
Horizontal drilling . A subset of the more general term directional drilling, used where the departure of the wellbore from vertical exceeds about 80 degrees. Note that some horizontal wells are designed such that after reaching true 90-degree horizontal, the wellbore may actually start drilling upward. In such cases, the angle past 90 degrees is continued, as in 95 degrees, rather than reporting it as deviation from vertical, which would then be 85 degrees. Because a horizontal well typically penetrates a greater length of the reservoir, it can offer significant production improvement over a vertical well.
Hydraulic fracturing . A stimulation treatment routinely performed on oil and gas wells in low permeability reservoirs. Specially engineered fluids are pumped at high pressure and rate into the reservoir interval to be treated, causing a vertical fracture to open. The wings of the fracture extend away from the wellbore in opposing directions according to the natural stresses within the formation. Proppant, such as grains of sand of a particular size, is mixed with the treatment fluid to keep the fracture open when the treatment is complete. Hydraulic fracturing creates high-conductivity communication with a large area of formation and bypasses any damage that may exist in the near-wellbore area.
Hydrocarbon . A naturally occurring organic compound comprising hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons can be as simple as methane, but many are highly complex molecules, and can occur as gases, liquids or solids. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. The most common hydrocarbons are natural gas, oil and coal.
Mud motors . A positive displacement drilling motor that uses hydraulic horsepower of the drilling fluid to drive the drill bit. Mud motors are used extensively in directional drilling operations.
Natural gas liquids . Components of natural gas that are liquid at surface in field facilities or in gas processing plants. Natural gas liquids can be classified according to their vapor pressures as low (condensate), intermediate (natural gasoline) and high (liquefied petroleum gas) vapor pressure.
Nitrogen pumping unit . A high-pressure pump or compressor unit capable of delivering high-purity nitrogen gas for use in oil or gas wells. Two basic types of units are commonly available: a nitrogen converter unit that pumps liquid nitrogen at high pressure through a heat exchanger or converter to deliver high-pressure gas at ambient temperature, and a nitrogen generator unit that compresses and separates air to provide a supply of high pressure nitrogen gas.
Plugging . The process of permanently closing oil and gas wells no longer capable of producing in economic quantities. Plugging work can be performed with a well servicing rig along with wireline and cementing equipment; however, this service is typically provided by companies that specialize in plugging work.
Plug . A down-hole packer assembly used in a well to seal off or isolate a particular formation for testing, acidizing, cementing, etc.; also a type of plug used to seal off a well temporarily while the wellhead is removed.
Pressure pumping . Services that include the pumping of liquids under pressure.
Producing formation . An underground rock formation from which oil, natural gas or water is produced. Any porous rock will contain fluids of some sort, and all rocks at considerable distance below the Earths surface will initially be under pressure, often related to the hydrostatic column of ground waters above the reservoir. To produce, rocks must also have permeability, or the capacity to permit fluids to flow through them.
Proppant . Sized particles mixed with fracturing fluid to hold fractures open after a hydraulic fracturing treatment. In addition to naturally occurring sand grains, man-made or specially engineered proppants, such as resin-coated sand or high-strength ceramic materials like sintered bauxite, may also be used. Proppant materials are carefully sorted for size and sphericity to provide an efficient conduit for production of fluid from the reservoir to the wellbore.
Resource play . Accumulation of hydrocarbons known to exist over a large area.
Shale . A fine-grained, fissile, sedimentary rock formed by consolidation of clay- and silt-sized particles into thin, relatively impermeable layers.
Tight oil . Conventional oil that is found within reservoirs with very low permeability. The oil contained within these reservoir rocks typically will not flow to the wellbore at economic rates without assistance from technologically advanced drilling and completion processes. Commonly, horizontal drilling coupled with multistage fracturing is used to access these difficult to produce reservoirs.
Tight sands . A type of unconventional tight reservoir. Tight reservoirs are those which have low permeability, often quantified as less than 0.1 millidarcies.
Tubulars . A generic term pertaining to any type of oilfield pipe, such as drillpipe, drill collars, pup joints, casing, production tubing and pipeline.
Unconventional resource . An umbrella term for oil and natural gas that is produced by means that do not meet the criteria for conventional production. What has qualified as unconventional at any particular time is a complex function of resource characteristics, the available exploration and production technologies, the economic environment, and the scale, frequency and duration of production from the resource. Perceptions of these factors inevitably change over time and often differ among users of the term. At present, the term is used in reference to oil and gas resources whose porosity, permeability, fluid trapping mechanism, or other characteristics differ from conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Coalbed methane, gas hydrates, shale gas, fractured reservoirs and tight gas sands are considered unconventional resources.
Wellbore . The physical conduit from surface into the hydrocarbon reservoir.
Well stimulation . A treatment performed to restore or enhance the productivity of a well. Stimulation treatments fall into two main groups, hydraulic fracturing treatments and matrix treatments. Fracturing treatments are performed above the fracture pressure of the reservoir formation and create a highly conductive flow path between the reservoir and the wellbore. Matrix treatments are performed below the reservoir fracture pressure and generally are designed to restore the natural permeability of the reservoir following damage to the near wellbore area. Stimulation in shale gas reservoirs typically takes the form of hydraulic fracturing treatments.
Wireline . A general term used to describe well-intervention operations conducted using single-strand or multi-strand wire or cable for intervention in oil or gas wells. Although applied inconsistently, the term commonly is used in association with electric logging and cables incorporating electrical conductors.
Workover . The process of performing major maintenance or remedial treatments on an oil or gas well. In many cases, workover implies the removal and replacement of the production tubing string after the well has been killed and a workover rig has been placed on location. Through-tubing workover operations, using coiled tubing, snubbing or slickline equipment, are routinely conducted to complete treatments or well service activities that avoid a full workover where the tubing is removed. This operation saves considerable time and expense.
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 13. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
The following table sets forth the fees and expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered hereunder. Except for the SEC registration fee, all amounts are estimates.
SEC registration fee
FINRA filing fee
Nasdaq Global Market listing fee
Accounting fees and expenses
Legal fees and expenses
Blue Sky fees and expenses (including counsel fees)
Printing and Engraving expenses
Transfer Agent and Registrar fees and expenses
|*||The additional estimated amounts, if any, of fees and expenses to be incurred, to the extent applicable, in connection with any offering of common stock pursuant to this registration statement will be determined from time to time and reflected in the applicable prospectus supplement.|
Item 14. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
Limitation of Liability
Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL permits a corporation, in its certificate of incorporation, to limit or eliminate, subject to certain statutory limitations, the liability of directors to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breaches of fiduciary duty, except for liability:
|||for any breach of the directors duty of loyalty to the company or its stockholders;|
|||for acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;|
|||in respect of certain unlawful dividend payments or stock redemptions or repurchases; and|
|||for any transaction from which the director derives an improper personal benefit.|
In accordance with Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL, Section 9.1 of our certificate of incorporation provides that that no director shall be personally liable to us or any of our stockholders for monetary damages resulting from breaches of their fiduciary duty as directors, except to the extent such limitation on or exemption from liability is not permitted under the DGCL. The effect of this provision of our certificate of incorporation is to eliminate our rights and those of our stockholders (through stockholders derivative suits on our behalf) to recover monetary damages against a director for breach of the fiduciary duty of care as a director, including breaches resulting from negligent or grossly negligent behavior, except, as restricted by Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL. However, this provision does not limit or eliminate our rights or the rights of any stockholder to seek non-monetary relief, such as an injunction or rescission, in the event of a breach of a directors duty of care.
If the DGCL is amended to authorize corporate action further eliminating or limiting the liability of directors, then, in accordance with our certificate of incorporation, the liability of our directors to us or our stockholders will be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL, as so amended. Any repeal or amendment of provisions of our certificate of incorporation limiting or eliminating the liability of
directors, whether by our stockholders or by changes in law, or the adoption of any other provisions inconsistent therewith, will (unless otherwise required by law) be prospective only, except to the extent such amendment or change in law permits us to further limit or eliminate the liability of directors on a retroactive basis.
Section 145 of the DGCL permits a corporation, under specified circumstances, to indemnify its directors, officers, employees or agents against expenses (including attorneys fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlements actually and reasonably incurred by them in connection with any action, suit or proceeding brought by third parties by reason of the fact that they were or are directors, officers, employees or agents of the corporation, if such directors, officers, employees or agents acted in good faith and in a manner they reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reason to believe their conduct was unlawful. In a derivative action, i.e., one by or in the right of the corporation, indemnification may be made only for expenses actually and reasonably incurred by directors, officers, employees or agents in connection with the defense or settlement of an action or suit, and only with respect to a matter as to which they shall have acted in good faith and in a manner they reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be made if such person shall have been adjudged liable to the corporation, unless and only to the extent that the court in which the action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that the defendant directors, officers, employees or agents are fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses despite such adjudication of liability.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that we will, to the fullest extent authorized or permitted by applicable law, indemnify our current and former directors and officers, as well as those persons who, while directors or officers of our corporation, are or were serving as directors, officers, employees or agents of another entity, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan, in connection with any threatened, pending or completed proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, against all expense, liability and loss (including, without limitation, attorneys fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes and penalties and amounts paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by any such person in connection with any such proceeding. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a person eligible for indemnification pursuant to our certificate of incorporation will be indemnified by us in connection with a proceeding initiated by such person only if such proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, except for proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification.
The right to indemnification conferred by our certificate of incorporation is a contract right that includes the right to be paid by us the expenses incurred in defending or otherwise participating in any proceeding referenced above in advance of its final disposition, provided, however, that if the DGCL requires, an advancement of expenses incurred by our officer or director (solely in the capacity as an officer or director of our corporation) will be made only upon delivery to us of an undertaking, by or on behalf of such officer or director, to repay all amounts so advanced if it is ultimately determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under our certificate of incorporation or otherwise.
The rights to indemnification and advancement of expenses will not be deemed exclusive of any other rights which any person covered by our certificate of incorporation may have or hereafter acquire under law, our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws, an agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors, or otherwise.
Any repeal or amendment of provisions of our certificate of incorporation affecting indemnification rights, whether by our stockholders or by changes in law, or the adoption of any other provisions inconsistent therewith, will (unless otherwise required by law) be prospective only, except to the extent such amendment or change in law permits us to provide broader indemnification rights on a retroactive basis, and will not in any way diminish or adversely affect any right or protection existing at the time of such repeal or amendment or adoption of such inconsistent provision with respect to any act or omission occurring prior to such repeal or amendment or
adoption of such inconsistent provision. Our certificate of incorporation also permits us, to the extent and in the manner authorized or permitted by law, to indemnify and to advance expenses to persons other that those specifically covered by our certificate of incorporation.
Our bylaws include the provisions relating to advancement of expenses and indemnification rights consistent with those set forth in our certificate of incorporation. In addition, our bylaws provide for a right of indemnitee to bring a suit in the event a claim for indemnification or advancement of expenses is not paid in full by us within a specified period of time. Our bylaws also permit us to purchase and maintain insurance, at our expense, to protect us and/or any director, officer, employee or agent of our corporation or another entity, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not we would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the DGCL.
Any repeal or amendment of provisions of our bylaws affecting indemnification rights, whether by our board of directors, stockholders or by changes in applicable law, or the adoption of any other provisions inconsistent therewith, will (unless otherwise required by law) be prospective only, except to the extent such amendment or change in law permits us to provide broader indemnification rights on a retroactive basis, and will not in any way diminish or adversely affect any right or protection existing thereunder with respect to any act or omission occurring prior to such repeal or amendment or adoption of such inconsistent provision.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our current directors and executive officers. These agreements require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us, and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. We also intend to enter into indemnification agreements with future directors and executive officers.
We may enter into an Underwriting Agreement in connection with a specific offering under which the underwriters will be obligated, under certain circumstances, to indemnify our directors and officers against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Reference is made to the form of Underwriting Agreement to be filed as Exhibit 1.1 to our Current Report on Form 8-K in connection with a specific offering.
Item 15. Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities.
On June 5, 2017, we issued an aggregate of 4,565,416 shares of our common stock to MEH Sub LLC, or MEH Sub, and certain other affiliates of Wexford Capital LP, or Wexford (all of which shares are currently held by MEH Sub following an internal reorganization of certain Wexford affiliates), 2,098,137 shares of our common stock to Gulfport Energy Corporation and 336,447 shares of our common stock to Rhino Exploration LLC as consideration for our acquisitions of all outstanding membership interests in Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC (which owns Taylor Frac, LLC, Taylor Real Estate Investments, LLC and South River Road, LLC), Stingray Energy Services LLC and Stingray Cementing LLC.
Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
|1.1+||Form of Common Stock Underwriting Agreement.|
|3.1||Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Companys Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-37917), filed with the SEC on November 16, 2016).|
|3.2||Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Companys Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-37917), filed with the SEC on November 16, 2016).|
|4.1||Specimen Certificate for shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Company (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Companys Amendment No. 2 to the Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (File No. 333-213504), filed with the SEC on October 3, 2016).|
|4.2||Registration Rights Agreement, dated October 12, 2016, by and between the Company and Mammoth Energy Holdings, LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Companys Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-37917), filed with the SEC on November 16, 2016).|
|4.3||Investor Rights Agreement, dated October 12, 2016, by and between the Company and Gulfport Energy Corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the Companys Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-37917), filed with the SEC on November 16, 2016).|
|4.4||Registration Rights Agreement, dated October 12, 2016, by and between the Company and Rhino Exploration LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.3 to the Companys Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-37917), filed with the SEC on November 16, 2016).|
|5.1*||Opinion of Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP as to the legality of the securities being registered.|
|23.1*||Consent of Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).|
|23.2*||Consent of Grant Thornton LLP with respect to the recast consolidated financial statements of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.|
|23.3*||Consent of Grant Thornton LLP with respect to the combined financial statements of Stingray Energy Services LLC and affiliate.|
|23.4*||Consent of KPMG LLP with respect to the audited consolidated statement of net liabilities in liquidation of Chieftain Sand and Proppant, LLC. and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2016, the related consolidated statement of changes in net liabilities in liquidation for the period from December 13, 2016 to December 31, 2016, the consolidated balance sheets as of December 12, 2016 and December 31, 2015, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in members deficit, and cash flows for the period from January 1, 2016 to December 12, 2016 and for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2015, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements.|
|23.5*||Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP with respect to the consolidated financial statements of Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC and its subsidiaries.|
|24.1*||Power of Attorney (included on the signature page of this Registration Statement).|
|+||To be filed as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K of the registrant in connection with a specific offering.|
|(B)||Financial Statement Schedules.|
All schedules are omitted because the required information is (i) not applicable, (ii) not present in amounts sufficient to require submission of the schedule or (iii) included in our financial statements and the accompanying notes included in the prospectus to this Registration Statement.
Item 17. Undertakings.
|(a)||The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:|
|(1)||to file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:|
|(i)||to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;|
|(ii)||to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the Calculation of Registration Fee table in the effective registration statement;|
|(iii)||to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;|
provided, however , that subparagraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those subparagraphs is contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act that is part of this registration statement.
|(2)||That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered herein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.|
|(3)||To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.|
|(4)||That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:|
|(i)||Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and|
|(ii)||Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or|
That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement,
|regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:|
|(i)||Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;|
|(ii)||Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;|
|(iii)||The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and|
|(iv)||Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.|
(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrants annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that is incorporated by reference in this registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant, pursuant to the foregoing provisions or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on November 1, 2017.
|MAMMOTH ENERGY SERVICES, INC.|
/s/ Arty Straehla
Chief Executive Officer
KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENT, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Arty Straehla and Mark Layton, and each of them, his true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, from such person and in each persons name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to the Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission and to sign and file any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done as fully to all said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons on the dates and in the capacities indicated.
/s/ Arty Straehla
Chief Executive Officer (principal
executive officer) and Director
|November 1, 2017|
/s/ Mark Layton
|Chief Financial Officer (principal financial and accounting officer)||November 1, 2017|
/s/ Marc McCarthy
|Director (Chairman of the Board)||November 1, 2017|
/s/ Paul K. Heerwagen IV
|Director||November 1, 2017|
|Paul K. Heerwagen IV|
/s/ Matthew Ross
|Director||November 1, 2017|
/s/ Arthur Smith
|Director||November 1, 2017|
/s/ James D. Palm
|Director||November 1, 2017|
|James D. Palm|
November 1, 2017
Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.
14201 Caliber Drive, Suite 300
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73134
Re: Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. Registration Statement on Form S-3
Ladies and Gentlemen:
We have acted as counsel to Mammoth Energy Services, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the Company ), in connection with the registration, pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-3 (the Registration Statement ), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Act ), relating to the offer and sale from time to time, as set forth in the Registration Statement, the form of prospectus contained therein (the Prospectus ) and, to the extent applicable, one or more supplements to the Prospectus (each, a Prospectus Supplement ), (i) by the Company of up to $500.0 million aggregate amount of shares (the Primary Shares ) of the Companys common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the Common Stock ), and (ii) by the selling stockholders named in the Registration Statement or any other selling stockholders to be identified in one or more Prospectus Supplements of up to 36,763,334 shares of Common Stock (the Secondary Shares and, together with the Primary Shares, the Shares ) on the terms to be determined at the time of each offering. This opinion is being furnished at the request of the Company and in accordance with the requirements of Item 601(b)(5) of Regulation S-K under the Act.
We have examined originals or certified copies of such corporate records of the Company and other certificates and documents of officials of the Company and public officials and others as we have deemed appropriate for purposes of this letter. We have assumed the genuineness of all signatures, the legal capacity of all natural persons, the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, and the conformity to authentic original documents of all copies submitted to us as conformed, certified or reproduced copies. We have also assumed the existence and entity power of each party to any document referred to herein other than the Company and that, upon sale and delivery, the certificates for the Primary Shares will conform to the specimen thereof incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and will have been duly countersigned by the transfer agent and duly registered by the registrar for the Common Stock or, if uncertificated, valid book-entry notations for the issuance of the Primary Shares in uncertificated form will have been duly made in the share register of the Company. As to various questions of fact relevant to this letter, we have relied, without independent investigation, upon certificates of public officials and certificates of officers of the Company, all of which we assume to be true, correct and complete.
Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the assumptions, exceptions, qualifications and limitations set forth hereinafter, we are of the opinion that:
1700 Pacific Avenue, Suite 4100 | Dallas, Texas 75201-4675 | 214.969.2800 | fax: 214.969.4343 | akingump.com
Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.
November 1, 2017
1. With respect to Shares constituting Primary Shares, when (i) the Company has taken all necessary action to authorize and approve the issuance of such Primary Shares, the terms of the offering thereof and related matters, (ii) the applicable definitive underwriting, purchase or other agreement providing for the issuance and sale thereof by the Company has been duly executed and delivered and (iii) such Primary Shares have been duly issued and delivered by the Company in accordance with the terms of such agreement against payment (or delivery) of the consideration payable therefor as determined by the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof (the Board ) and as provided for in such agreement, such Primary Shares will have been duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.
2. The Secondary Shares have been duly authorized and validly issued and are fully paid and non-assessable.
The opinions and other matters in this letter are qualified in their entirety and subject to the following:
(A) We have assumed that, in the case of each offer and sale of Primary Shares: (i) at the time of the issuance of such Shares, the Company (a) will validly exist and be duly qualified and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of incorporation, and (b) will have the necessary corporate power and due authorization, and the certificate of incorporation and bylaws of the Company will be in full force and effect and will not have been amended, restated, supplemented or otherwise altered, and there will have been no authorization of any such amendment, restatement, supplement or other alteration, since the date hereof; (ii) the issuance and sale of such Shares will have been established in conformity with and so as not to violate, or result in a default under or breach of, the certificate of incorporation and bylaws of the Company, and so as not to violate, or result in a default under or breach of any applicable law, regulation or administrative order or any agreement or instrument binding upon the Company and so as to comply with any requirement or restriction imposed by any court or governmental or regulatory body (including any securities exchange on which the Companys securities are listed for trading) having jurisdiction over the Company; (iii) sufficient shares of Common Stock will be authorized for the issuance of such Shares under the certificate of incorporation of the Company that have not otherwise been issued or reserved or otherwise committed for issuance; and (iv) the consideration for the issuance and sale of such Shares established by the Board and provided for in the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement will not be less than the par value of the Common Stock.
(B) We express no opinion as to the laws of any jurisdiction other than the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.
November 1, 2017
(C) This letter is limited to the matters expressly stated herein and no opinion is to be inferred or implied beyond the opinion expressly set forth herein. We undertake no, and hereby disclaim any, obligation to make any inquiry after the date hereof or to advise you of any changes in any matter set forth herein, whether based on a change in the law, a change in any fact relating to the Company or any other person or entity or any other circumstance.
We hereby consent to the filing of this letter as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of our name in the Prospectus forming a part of the Registration Statement under the caption Legal Matters. In giving this consent, we do not thereby admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Act and the rules and regulations thereunder.
Very truly yours,
/s/ AKIN GUMP STRAUSS HAUER & FELD LLP
AKIN GUMP STRAUSS HAUER & FELD LLP
CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
We have issued our report dated October 26, 2017 with respect to the consolidated financial statements of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. included in the Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 27, 2017, which is incorporated by reference in this Registration Statement. We consent to the incorporation by reference of the aforementioned report in this Registration Statement, and to the use of our name as it appears under the caption Experts.
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
November 1, 2017
CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS
We have issued our report dated April 19, 2017 with respect to the combined financial statements of Stingray Energy Services LLC and Affiliate included in the Current Report of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. on Form 8-K filed on August 2, 2017, which is incorporated by reference in this Registration Statement. We consent to the incorporation by reference of the aforementioned report in this Registration Statement, and to the use of our name as it appears under the caption Experts.
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
November 1, 2017
Consent of Independent Auditors
We consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. of our report dated June 9, 2017, with respect to the consolidated statement of net liabilities in liquidation of Chieftain Sand and Proppant, LLC and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 2016, the related consolidated statement of changes in net liabilities in liquidation for the period from December 13, 2016 to December 31, 2016, the consolidated balance sheets as of December 12, 2016 and December 31, 2015, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in members deficit, and cash flows for the period from January 1, 2016 to December 12, 2016 and for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2015, and the related notes to the consolidated financial statements, which report appears in the Form 8-K/A of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. dated August 2, 2017 and to the reference to our firm under the heading Experts in the prospectus.
Our report dated June 9, 2017 contains an emphasis of matter paragraph that states the Special Committee of the Board of Managers of Chieftain Sand and Proppant, LLC approved a plan of liquidation and management of the Company concluded liquidation was imminent as defined in ASC Subtopic 205-30, Liquidation Basis of Accounting. As a result, the Company has changed its basis of accounting for periods subsequent to December 12, 2016, from the going-concern basis to a liquidation basis.
/s/ KPMG LLP
November 1, 2017
CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
We hereby consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. of our report dated August 14, 2017, relating to the financial statements of Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC, which appears in the current report on Form 8-K of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. dated October 26, 2017. We also consent to the reference to us under the heading Experts in such Registration Statement.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
November 1, 2017