424B5
Table of Contents

Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-221268

 

This prospectus supplement is related to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, but is not complete and may be changed. This prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell the securities described herein and is not soliciting offers to buy such securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 26, 2018

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT TO PROSPECTUS DATED JUNE 19, 2018

4,000,000 SHARES

Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

The selling stockholders identified in this prospectus supplement are selling an aggregate of 4,000,000 shares of our common stock. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TUSK.” The last reported sales price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 26, 2018 was $39.78 per share.

The selling stockholders have granted the underwriter the option to purchase up to an aggregate of 600,000 additional shares of our common stock at the public offering price less underwriting discounts and commission. See “Selling Stockholders” beginning on page S-17.

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-5.

The underwriter has agreed to purchase the shares of common stock from the selling stockholders at a price of $             per share, which will result in approximately $             million of proceeds to the selling stockholders.

The underwriter proposes to offer the shares of common stock from time to time for sale in one or more transactions on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, in the over-the-counter market, through negotiated transactions or otherwise at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. See “Underwriting.”

Delivery of the shares of common stock will be made on or about June     , 2018 through the book-entry facilities of the Depository Trust Company.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

Book-Running Manager

Credit Suisse

 

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is June     , 2018


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-ii  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

THE OFFERING

     S-4  

RISK FACTORS

     S-5  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-12  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-13  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-14  

CAPITALIZATION

     S-15  

PRICE RANGE OF COMMON STOCK

     S-16  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     S-17  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

     S-19  

UNDERWRITING

     S-24  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-30  

EXPERTS

     S-30  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     S-30  

Prospectus

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     ii  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     iii  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     iii  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     v  

OUR COMPANY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     2  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     30  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     31  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     32  

DESCRIPTION OF OUR COMMON STOCK

     35  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

     39  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     44  

LEGAL MATTERS

     47  

EXPERTS

     47  

GLOSSARY OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS AND ELECTRICAL INFRASTRUCTURE TERMS

     48  

 

S-i


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. You should read the entire prospectus supplement, as well as the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference that are described under “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus and “Information Incorporated by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In the event that the description of this offering varies between this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on the information contained in this prospectus supplement.

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or to which we have referred you. We have not, and the selling stockholders and the underwriter have not, authorized any other person to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein that are described under “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus and “Information Incorporated by Reference” in the accompanying prospectus and in this prospectus supplement. The selling stockholders and the underwriter are only offering to sell, and only seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted.

The information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or in any document incorporated herein or therein is accurate and complete only as of the date hereof or thereof, respectively, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or of any sale of our common stock by the selling stockholders or the underwriter. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

Industry and Market Data

This prospectus supplement includes industry and market data and forecasts that we obtained from internal company surveys, publicly available information and industry publications and surveys. Our internal research and forecasts are based on management’s understanding of industry conditions, and such information has not been verified by independent sources. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable.

Unless the context otherwise requires, the information in this prospectus supplement assumes that the underwriter will not exercise its option to purchase additional shares.

 

S-ii


Table of Contents

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

In this prospectus supplement, we refer to Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. together with its consolidated subsidiaries, as “we,” “us,” “our” or “the Company,” unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise require.

Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.

Overview

We are an integrated, growth-oriented energy service company serving (i) companies engaged in the exploration and development of North American onshore unconventional oil and natural gas reserves and (ii) government-funded utilities, private utilities, public investor owned utilities and co-operative utilities through our energy infrastructure business. Our primary business objective is to grow our operations and create value for stockholders through organic opportunities and accretive acquisitions. Our suite of services includes pressure pumping services, infrastructure services, natural sand proppant services, contract land and directional drilling services and other energy services, including coil tubing, pressure control, flowback, cementing, equipment rental and remote accommodations. Our pressure pumping services division provides hydraulic fracturing services. Our infrastructure services division provides construction, upgrade, maintenance and repair services to the electrical infrastructure industry. Our natural sand proppant services division mines, processes and sells proppant used for hydraulic fracturing. Our contract land and directional drilling services division provides drilling rigs and crews for operators as well as rental equipment, such as mud motors and operational tools, for both vertical and horizontal drilling. In addition to these service divisions, we also provide coil tubing services, pressure control services, flowback services, cementing services, equipment rentals and remote accommodations. We believe that the services we offer play a critical role in increasing the ultimate recovery and present value of production streams from unconventional resources as well as maintaining and improving electrical infrastructure. Our complementary suite of services provides us with the opportunity to cross-sell our services and expand our customer base and geographic positioning.

We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. For as long as we are an emerging growth company, we will not be required to comply with certain requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports. We intend to take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. For a description of the qualifications and other requirements applicable to emerging growth companies and certain elections that we have made due to our status as an emerging growth company, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and Our Common Stock—For so long as we are an ‘emerging growth company’ we will not be required to comply with certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement.

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves risks. You should read carefully the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as other risk factors incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus from the filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, for an explanation of these risks before investing in our common stock. In particular, the following considerations may offset our competitive strengths or have a negative effect on our strategy or operating activities, which could cause a decrease in the price of our common stock and a loss of all or part of your investment:

 

   

A portion of our business depends on the oil and natural gas industry and particularly on the level of exploration and production activity within the United States and Canada, and the ongoing volatility in

 

S-1


Table of Contents
 

prices for oil and natural gas has had, and continues to have, an adverse effect on our revenue, cash flows, profitability and growth.

 

    The cyclicality of the oil and natural gas industry may cause our operating results to fluctuate.

 

    If oil prices or natural gas prices decline, the demand for our oil and natural gas services could be adversely affected.

 

    Our business is difficult to evaluate because we have a limited operating history.

 

    Our customer base is concentrated and the loss of one or more of our significant customers, or their failure to pay the amounts they owe us, could cause our revenue to decline substantially.

 

    One of our infrastructure services subsidiaries has entered into service contracts with Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, or PREPA, which provide for aggregate payments to us of up to approximately $1.8 billion. PREPA is currently subject to pending bankruptcy proceedings. In the event that PREPA does not have or does not obtain the funds necessary to satisfy its payment obligations to our subsidiary under the contracts or terminates the contracts prior to the end of their terms, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

 

    We provide the majority of our infrastructure services to one customer, and the majority of our hydraulic fracturing completion services and natural sand proppant products to a limited number of customers, and the termination of one or more of these relationships could adversely affect our operations.

 

    Inaccuracies in estimates of volumes and qualities of our sand reserves could result in lower than expected sales and higher than expected production costs.

 

    As part of our natural sand proppant services business, we rely on third parties for raw materials and transportation, and the suspension or termination of our relationship with one or more of these third parties could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

    We face distribution and logistics challenges in our business and increasing transportation and related costs could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

    Our operations may be limited or disrupted in certain parts of the continental U.S., Puerto Rico and Canada during severe weather conditions, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

    Our operations are subject to hazards inherent in the oil and natural gas and energy infrastructure industries, which could expose us to substantial liability and cause us to lose customers and substantial revenue.

 

    We are subject to extensive environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that may subject us to substantial liability or require us to take actions that will adversely affect our results of operations.

 

    Our operations in our natural sand proppant services business are dependent on our rights and ability to mine our properties and on our having renewed or received the required permits and approvals from governmental authorities and other third parties.

 

    The growth of our business through acquisitions may expose us to various risks, including those relating to difficulties in identifying suitable, accretive acquisition opportunities and integrating businesses, assets and personnel, as well as difficulties in obtaining financing for targeted acquisitions and the potential for increased leverage or debt service requirements.

 

    Our two largest stockholders, which are the selling stockholders in this offering, control a significant percentage of our common stock, and their interests may conflict with those of our other stockholders.

 

S-2


Table of Contents

For a discussion of other considerations that could negatively affect us, see “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-5 and those incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus from the filings we make with the SEC, as well as “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Our Offices

Our principal executive offices are located at 14201 Caliber Drive, Suite 300, Oklahoma City, OK 73134, and our telephone number at that address is (405) 608-6007. Our website address is www.mammothenergy.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference, and does not constitute part of, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

S-3


Table of Contents

THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by the selling stockholders

4,000,000 shares (4,600,000 shares if the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full).

 

Option to purchase additional shares

The selling stockholders have granted the underwriter a 30-day option to purchase up to an aggregate of 600,000 additional shares of our common stock.

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after completion of this offering

44,740,815 shares.

 

Use of proceeds

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of common stock by the selling stockholders in this offering. See “Use of Proceeds”.

 

Dividend policy

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant. In addition, the terms of our existing outstanding borrowings restrict the payment of dividends to the holders of our common stock and any other equity holders.

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

“TUSK.”

 

Risk Factors

You should carefully read and consider the information set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” and other risk factors incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus from the filings we make with the SEC, as well as all other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before deciding to invest in our common stock.

Except as otherwise indicated, all share information contained in this prospectus supplement assumes the underwriter does not exercise its option to purchase additional shares of our common stock.

 

S-4


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks, as well as the risks described in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and all of the other information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before deciding to invest in our common stock. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any of these risks. The risks described below and those incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not the only ones facing us. Additional risks not presently known to us or which we currently consider immaterial also may adversely affect us.

Risks Related to this Offering and Our Common Stock

Prior to our initial public offering, there was no public market for our common stock and if the price of our common stock fluctuates significantly, your investment could lose value.

Prior to the completion of our initial public offering, or the IPO, in October 2016, there was no public market for our common stock. Although our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, an active public market for our common stock may not be maintained. If an active public market for our common stock is not maintained, the trading price and liquidity of our common stock will be materially and adversely affected. If there is a thin trading market or “float” for our common stock, the market price for our common stock may fluctuate significantly more than the stock market as a whole. Without a large float, our common stock is less liquid than the securities of companies with broader public ownership and, as a result, the trading prices of our common stock may be more volatile. In addition, in the absence of an active public trading market, investors may be unable to liquidate their investment in us. In addition, the stock market is subject to significant price and volume fluctuations, and the price of our common stock could fluctuate widely in response to several factors, including:

 

    our quarterly or annual operating results;

 

    changes in our earnings estimates;

 

    investment recommendations by securities analysts following our business or our industries;

 

    additions or departures of key personnel;

 

    changes in the business, earnings estimates or market perceptions of our competitors;

 

    our failure to achieve operating results consistent with securities analysts’ projections;

 

    changes in industry, general market or economic conditions; and

 

    announcements of legislative or regulatory change.

The stock market has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations in recent years that have significantly affected the quoted prices of the securities of many companies, including companies in our industries. The changes often appear to occur without regard to specific operating performance. The price of our common stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with our company and these fluctuations could materially reduce the price for our common stock.

Future sales of our common stock, or the perception that such future sales may occur, may cause our stock price to decline.

Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales may occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. In addition, the sale of such shares, or

 

S-5


Table of Contents

the perception that such sales may occur, could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional common or preferred stock. Except for any shares purchased by our affiliates, all of the shares of common stock sold in our initial public offering and our subsequent equity offerings are, and all of the shares of common stock sold in this offering will be, freely tradable. In connection with this offering, we agreed that, subject to certain exceptions, we will not offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly, or file with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, relating to, any shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for any shares of our common stock, or publicly disclose the intention to make any offer, sale, pledge, disposition or filing, without the prior written consent of Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC for a period of 45 days after the date of this prospectus supplement. Further, the selling stockholders identified in this prospectus supplement and our directors and executive officers are subject to agreements that limit their ability to sell our common stock held by them. These holders cannot sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of our common stock for a period of 45 days after the date of this prospectus supplement without the prior written approval of Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC. The lock-up agreements with the selling stockholders and our directors and executive officers are also subject to certain specific exceptions, including transfers of common stock as a bona fide gift or by will or intestate succession and transfers to such person’s immediate family or to a trust or to an entity controlled by such holder, provided that the recipient of the shares agrees to be bound by the same restrictions on sales and, with respect to our directors and executive officers, the right of such individuals to sell up to 100,000 shares in the aggregate. In the event that one or more of our stockholders sells a substantial amount of our common stock in the public market, or the market perceives that such sales may occur, the price of our stock could decline.

Wexford Capital LP and Gulfport Energy Corporation, which are the selling stockholders in this offering, beneficially own a substantial amount of our common stock. Sales of shares of our common stock in this offering or future sales of our common stock by these stockholders, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock.

As of June 1, 2018, Wexford Capital LP, or Wexford, through its affiliate MEH Sub LLC, and Gulfport Energy Corporation, or Gulfport, which are the selling stockholders in this offering, beneficially owned 56.0% and 25.0% of our outstanding common stock, respectively. Sales of the shares of common stock in this offering or any future sales by these stockholders, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the price of our common stock to decline. In addition, the sale of these shares could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional common or preferred stock.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, the price of our stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover our company downgrades our stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.

Negative publicity may adversely impact us.

Media coverage and public statements that insinuate improper actions by us, regardless of their factual accuracy or truthfulness, may result in negative publicity, litigation or governmental investigations by regulators. Addressing negative publicity and any resulting litigation or investigations may distract management, increase costs and divert resources. Negative publicity may have an adverse impact on our reputation and the morale of our employees, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operations, cash flows, growth prospects and stock price.

 

S-6


Table of Contents

Our two largest stockholders control a significant percentage of our common stock, and their interests may conflict with those of our other stockholders.

As of June 1, 2018, Wexford, through its affiliate MEH Sub LLC, and Gulfport beneficially owned approximately 56.0% and 25.0%, respectively, of our outstanding common stock and, following the completion of this offering, will beneficially own 49.7% and 22.2%, respectively, of our common stock (or 48.8% and 21.8%, respectively, if the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full). As a result, Wexford alone currently controls, and following the completion of this offering will continue to control, and Gulfport currently can, and following the completion of this offering will continue to be able to, exercise significant influence, over matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, changes to our organizational documents and significant corporate transactions. Further, two individuals who serve as our directors are affiliates of Wexford or Gulfport. This concentration of ownership and relationships with Wexford and Gulfport make it unlikely that any other holder or group of holders of our common stock will be able to affect the way we are managed or the direction of our business. In addition, we have engaged, and expect to continue to engage, in related party transactions involving Wexford and Gulfport, and certain companies they control. The interests of Wexford and Gulfport with respect to matters potentially or actually involving or affecting us, such as services provided, future acquisitions, financings and other corporate opportunities, and attempts to acquire us, may conflict with the interests of our other stockholders. This concentrated ownership will make it impossible for another company to acquire us and for you to receive any related takeover premium for your shares unless these stockholders approve the acquisition.

A significant reduction by Wexford or Gulfport of their ownership interests in us could adversely affect us.

We believe that Wexford’s and Gulfport’s substantial ownership interests in us provides them with an economic incentive to assist us to be successful. Except for the lock-up agreements executed by these selling stockholders in connection with this offering, neither Wexford nor Gulfport is subject to any obligation to maintain its ownership interest in us and may elect at any time to sell all or a substantial portion of or otherwise reduce its ownership interest in us. If Wexford or Gulfport sells all or a substantial portion of its ownership interest in us that remains following this offering, it may have less incentive to assist in our success and its affiliates that serve as members of our board of directors may resign. Such actions could adversely affect our ability to successfully implement our business strategies which could adversely affect our cash flows or results of operations.

We incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, which may significantly affect our financial condition.

We completed our IPO in October 2016. As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. These include costs associated with our public company reporting requirements and corporate governance requirements, including requirements under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, as well as rules implemented by the SEC, The Nasdaq Global Select Market and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. These rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs and made some activities more time-consuming and costly. These rules and regulations may also make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We estimate that we incur approximately $2.5 million of incremental costs per year associated with being a publicly traded company; however, it is possible that our incremental costs of being a publicly traded company will be higher than we currently estimate. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur significant additional expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with those requirements applicable to companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. See “—We are subject to certain requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If

 

S-7


Table of Contents

we are unable to timely comply with Section 404 or if the costs related to compliance are significant, our profitability, stock price, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected ” below.

For so long as we are an “emerging growth company” we will not be required to comply with certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act and, for as long as we remain an “emerging growth company,” intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an “emerging growth company” for up to five years following the completion of our IPO, although, if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of June 30 of any year, or we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period before the end of that five-year period, we would cease to be an “emerging growth company” as of the following December 31st. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we rely on certain exemptions available to “emerging growth companies.” If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our common stock price may be more volatile.

We are subject to certain requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we are unable to timely comply with Section 404 or if the costs related to compliance are significant, our profitability, stock price, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

As of December 31, 2017, we are required to comply with certain provisions of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Section 404 requires that we document and test our internal control over financial reporting and issue management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting. Because we are an “emerging growth company,” however, our independent registered public accounting firm is not currently required to opine on those internal controls. During the course of our integration of our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify areas requiring improvement, and we may have to design enhanced processes and controls to address issues identified through this review. We believe that the out-of-pocket costs, the diversion of management’s attention from running the day-to-day operations and operational changes caused by the need to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could be significant. If the time and costs associated with such compliance exceed our current expectations, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

If we fail to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or if we or our auditors identify and report material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting, the accuracy and timeliness of the filing of our annual and quarterly reports may be materially adversely affected and could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. In addition, a material weakness in the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting could result in an increased chance of fraud and the loss of customers, reduce our ability to obtain financing and require additional expenditures to comply with these requirements, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

S-8


Table of Contents

Since we are a “controlled company” for purposes of The Nasdaq Global Select Market’s corporate governance requirements, our stockholders will not have, and may never have, the protections that these corporate governance requirements are intended to provide.

Since we are a “controlled company” for purposes of The Nasdaq Global Select Market’s corporate governance requirements, we are not required to comply with the provisions requiring that a majority of our directors be independent, the compensation of our executives be determined by independent directors or nominees for election to our board of directors be selected by independent directors. If we choose to take advantage of any or all of these exemptions, our stockholders may not have the protections that these rules are intended to provide.

The corporate opportunity provisions in our certificate of incorporation could enable Wexford, Gulfport or other affiliates of ours to benefit from corporate opportunities that might otherwise be available to us.

Subject to the limitations of applicable law, our certificate of incorporation, among other things:

 

    permits us to enter into transactions with entities in which one or more of our officers or directors are financially or otherwise interested;

 

    permits any of our stockholders, officers or directors to conduct business that competes with us and to make investments in any kind of property in which we may make investments; and

 

    provides that if any director or officer of one of our affiliates who is also one of our officers or directors becomes aware of a potential business opportunity, transaction or other matter (other than one expressly offered to that director or officer in writing solely in his or her capacity as our director or officer), that director or officer will have no duty to communicate or offer that opportunity to us, and will be permitted to communicate or offer that opportunity to such affiliates and that director or officer will not be deemed to have (i) acted in a manner inconsistent with his or her fiduciary or other duties to us regarding the opportunity or (ii) acted in bad faith or in a manner inconsistent with our best interests.

These provisions create the possibility that a corporate opportunity that would otherwise be available to us may be used for the benefit of one of our affiliates.

We have engaged in transactions with our affiliates and expect to do so in the future. The terms of such transactions and the resolution of any conflicts that may arise may not always be in our or our common stockholders’ best interests.

We have engaged in transactions and expect to continue to engage in transactions with affiliated companies. As described in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, incorporated by reference in this supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in such reports, these transactions include, among others, agreements to provide our services and frac sand products to our affiliates and agreements pursuant to which our affiliates provide or will provide us with certain services, including administrative and advisory services and office space. Each of these entities is either controlled by or affiliated with Wexford or Gulfport, as the case may be, and the resolution of any conflicts that may arise in connection with such related party transactions, including pricing, duration or other terms of service, may not always be in our or our stockholders’ best interests because Wexford and/or Gulfport may have the ability to influence the outcome of these conflicts. For a discussion of potential conflicts, see “—Our two largest stockholders control a significant percentage of our common stock, and their interests may conflict with those of our other stockholders” above.

We may issue preferred stock whose terms could adversely affect the voting power or value of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue, without the approval of our stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designations, preferences, limitations and relative rights,

 

S-9


Table of Contents

including preferences over our common stock respecting dividends and distributions, as our board of directors may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could adversely impact the voting power or value of our common stock. For example, we might grant holders of preferred stock the right to elect some number of our directors in all events or on the happening of specified events or the right to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we might assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of the common stock.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law make it more difficult to effect a change in control of the company, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.

The existence of some provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware corporate law could delay or prevent a change in control of our company, even if that change would be beneficial to our stockholders. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may make acquiring control of our company difficult, including:

 

    provisions regulating the ability of our stockholders to nominate directors for election or to bring matters for action at annual meetings of our stockholders;

 

    limitations on the ability of our stockholders to call a special meeting and act by written consent;
    the ability of our board of directors to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws, and the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained for stockholders to amend our bylaws;

 

    the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained to remove directors;

 

    the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained to amend our certificate of incorporation; and

 

    the authorization given to our board of directors to issue and set the terms of preferred stock without the approval of our stockholders.

These provisions also could discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. As a result, these provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders, which may limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation designates courts in the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, subject to limited exceptions, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for:

 

    Any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

 

    Any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders;

 

    Any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law; or

 

    Any other action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that if any action specified above (each is referred to herein as a covered proceeding), is filed in a court other than the specified Delaware courts without the approval

 

S-10


Table of Contents

of our board of directors (each is referred to herein as a foreign action), the claiming party will be deemed to have consented to (i) the personal jurisdiction of the specified Delaware courts in connection with any action brought in any such courts to enforce the exclusive forum provision described above and (ii) having service of process made upon such claiming party in any such enforcement action by service upon such claiming party’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such claiming party. These provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our certificate of incorporation inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the covered proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock, and any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our commons stock. In addition, the terms of our existing outstanding borrowings restrict the payment of dividends to the holders of our common stock and any other equity holders.

 

S-11


Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference, contain forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, and may include statements about our:

 

    business strategy;

 

    planned acquisitions and future capital expenditures;

 

    ability to obtain permits and governmental approvals;

 

    estimates of our sand reserves;

 

    technology;

 

    financial strategy;

 

    future operating results; and

 

    plans, objectives, expectations and intentions.

All of these types of statements, other than statements of historical fact included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements may be found under the headings “Prospectus Supplement Summary” and “Risk Factors” of this prospectus supplement, under the headings “Risk Factors”, “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included, as applicable, in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q incorporated by reference herein and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “could,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “project,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “pursue,” “target,” “seek,” “objective” or “continue,” the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology.

The forward-looking statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are largely based on our expectations, which reflect estimates and assumptions made by our management. These estimates and assumptions reflect our best judgment based on currently known market conditions and other factors. Although we believe such estimates and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently uncertain and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that are beyond our control. In addition, our management’s assumptions about future events may prove to be inaccurate. Our management cautions all readers that the forward-looking statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not guarantees of future performance, and we cannot assure any reader that such statements will be realized or the forward-looking events and circumstances will occur. Actual results may differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements due to the many factors including those described under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other filings we make with the SEC incorporated by reference herein and elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. All forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or included in a document incorporated by reference herein speak only as of the date hereof or thereof, respectively. We do not intend to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. These cautionary statements qualify all forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf.

 

S-12


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

The selling stockholders identified in this prospectus supplement are selling all of the shares of common stock being sold in this offering, including any shares that may be sold in connection with the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares. Accordingly, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering. We will bear all costs, fees and expenses in connection with this offering, except that the selling stockholders will pay all of their respective underwriting discounts and commissions. See “Selling Stockholders” and “Underwriting.”

 

S-13


Table of Contents

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant. In addition, the terms of our existing outstanding borrowings restrict the payment of dividends to the holders of our common stock and any other equity holders.

 

S-14


Table of Contents

CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our unaudited cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of March 31, 2018:

The following table should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

     As of March 31,
2018
 
     (in thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 10,447  
  

 

 

 

Long-term debt:

  

Revolving credit facility(1)

   $ 39,000  

Total long-term debt

     39,000  

Stockholders’ equity:

  

Common stock, par value $0.01; 200,000,000 shares authorized and 44,714,296 shares issued and outstanding

     447  

Additional paid-in-capital

     509,265  

Retained earnings

     57,547  

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

     (3,122

Total stockholders’ equity

     564,137  
  

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 603,137  
  

 

 

 

 

(1) As of June 21, 2018, there was $27.7 million in borrowings outstanding under our revolving credit facility, and we had available borrowing capacity of $135.0 million, after giving effect to $6.5 million of outstanding letters of credit.

 

S-15


Table of Contents

PRICE RANGE OF COMMON STOCK

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TUSK.” The following table presents the high and low closing prices of our common stock for each quarter in 2018, 2017 and 2016 based on the closing price of a given trading day:

 

     High      Low  

2018

     

First Quarter

   $ 32.91      $ 19.82  

Second Quarter(1)

   $ 40.88      $ 30.68  

2017

     

First Quarter

   $ 22.45      $ 15.38  

Second Quarter

   $ 21.72      $ 16.25  

Third Quarter

   $ 19.40      $ 11.05  

Fourth Quarter

   $ 20.89      $ 14.49  

2016

     

Fourth Quarter(2)

   $ 17.25      $ 12.48  

 

(1) Through June 26, 2018.
(2) Our common stock commenced trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 14, 2016 in connection with the IPO.

The closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 26, 2018, was $39.78 per share. Immediately prior to this offering, we had 44,740,815 issued and outstanding shares of common stock, which were held by six holders of record. This number does not include owners for whom common stock may be held in “street” name or whose common stock is restricted.

 

S-16


Table of Contents

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

The following table presents information regarding the selling stockholders in this offering, the shares that the underwriter has agreed to purchase from the selling stockholders and the shares subject to the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares from the selling stockholders. In addition, the nature of any position, office or other material relationship which the selling stockholders have had, within the past three years, with us or with any of our predecessors or affiliates, is indicated in a footnote to the table. As required by the terms of the registration rights agreements or the investor rights agreement, as applicable, with the selling stockholders, described in more detail in the accompanying prospectus, we have paid all expenses relating to the registration of the shares by the selling stockholders under the Securities Act and will pay other offering expenses, except that the selling stockholders will pay all underwriting discounts and commissions. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common stock by the selling stockholders.

We prepared the table based on information provided to us by the selling stockholders. We have not sought to verify such information.

Except as otherwise indicated, we believe that the selling stockholders have sole voting and dispositive power with respect to the shares indicated as beneficially owned.

 

Name of Selling
Stockholder

  Shares Beneficially Owned
Prior to Offering(1)
    Shares
Offered
    Shares Beneficially
Owned After Offering(1)
    Additional
Shares
Offered if
Option to
Purchase
Additional
Shares is
Exercised
in Full
    Shares Beneficially
Owned After Offering if
Option to Purchase
Additional Shares is
Exercised in Full
 
  Number     Percentage       Number     Percentage       Number     Percentage  

MEH Sub LLC(2)

    25,018,899       56.0     2,764,400       22,254,499       49.7     414,660       21,839,839       48.8

Gulfport Energy Corporation(3)

    11,181,467       25.0     1,235,600       9,945,867       22.2     185,340       9,760,527       21.8

 

(1) Percentage of beneficial ownership is based upon 44,740,815 shares of common stock outstanding as of June 22, 2018. For purposes of this table, a person or group of persons is deemed to have “beneficial ownership” of any shares of common stock which such person or groups of persons has the right to acquire within 60 days. For purposes of computing the percentage of outstanding shares of common stock held by each person or group of persons named above, any security that such person or group of persons has the right to acquire within 60 days is deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership for such person or persons, but is not deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person.
(2)

Wexford is the manager of MEH Sub LLC, or MEH Sub, which is one of the selling stockholders in this offering. The number of shares of common stock that may be sold by MEH Sub pursuant to this prospectus supplement includes 9,580 restricted stock units, or RSUs, granted under our equity incentive plan, which were assigned to Wexford by Marc McCarthy, our Chairman of the Board, under the terms of his employment with Wexford, of which (i) 7,358 RSUs have vested, and (ii) 2,222 RSUs will vest on October 19, 2018. As manager of MEH Sub, Wexford has the exclusive authority to, among other things, purchase, hold and dispose of MEH Sub’s assets. Wexford may, by reason of its status as the manager of MEH Sub, be deemed to beneficially own the interest in the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Wexford GP LLC, or Wexford GP, may, by reason of its status as general partner of Wexford, be deemed to beneficially own the interest in the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Each of Charles E. Davidson and Joseph M. Jacobs may, by reason of his status as a controlling person of Wexford GP, be deemed to beneficially own the interests in the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Each of Charles E. Davidson, Joseph M. Jacobs, Wexford GP and Wexford share the power to vote and to dispose of shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Each of Messrs. Davidson and Jacobs disclaims beneficial ownership of the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub and Wexford, except to the extent of their respective

 

S-17


Table of Contents
  personal ownership interests in MEH Sub or any members of MEH Sub. Wexford has offices at 411 West Putnam Ave, Greenwich, Connecticut 06830 and 777 South Flagler Drive, Suite 602 East, West Palm Beach, Florida 33401.
(3) The number of shares of common stock that may be sold by Gulfport pursuant to this prospectus supplement includes 9,580 RSUs granted under our equity incentive plan and were assigned to Gulfport by its director designees to our board of directors under the terms of their respective employment with Gulfport. Of these 9,580 RSUs, (i) 7,358 have vested, and (ii) 2,222 will vest on October 19, 2018. Gulfport’s address is 3001 Quail Springs Parkway, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73134.

 

S-18


Table of Contents

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

The following is a general discussion of material U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder (as defined below). This discussion deals only with common stock purchased in this offering that is held as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code (generally, property held for investment), by a non-U.S. holder. Except as modified for estate tax purposes, the term “non-U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of our common stock that is not a “U.S. person” or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income and estate tax purposes. A U.S. person is any of the following:

 

    an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

    a corporation (including any entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

    an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

    trust, if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust, or if it has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

An individual may generally be treated as a resident of the United States in any calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes, by, among other ways, being present in the United States for at least 31 days in that calendar year and for an aggregate of at least 183 days during a three-year period ending in the current calendar year. For purposes of the 183-day calculation, all of the days present in the current year, one-third of the days present in the immediately preceding year and one-sixth of the days present in the second preceding year are counted. Residents are taxed for U.S. federal income tax purposes as if they were U.S. citizens.

This discussion is based upon provisions of the Code, and Treasury Regulations, administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as of the date hereof. Those authorities may be changed, perhaps retroactively, so as to result in U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences different from those discussed below. No ruling has been or will be sought from the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, with respect to the matters discussed below, and there can be no assurance the IRS will not take a contrary position regarding the tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our common stock, or that such contrary position would not be sustained by a court. This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income and estate taxation, including the impact of the unearned income Medicare contribution tax and does not deal with other U.S. federal tax laws (such as gift tax laws) or non-U.S., state, local or other tax considerations that may be relevant to non-U.S. holders in light of their personal circumstances. In addition, this discussion does not address tax considerations applicable to investors that may be subject to special treatment under the U.S. federal income tax laws, such as (without limitation):

 

    certain former U.S. citizens or residents;

 

    shareholders that hold our common stock as part of a straddle, constructive sale transaction, synthetic security, hedge, conversion transaction or other integrated investment or risk reduction transaction;

 

    shareholders that acquired our common stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation or through a tax-qualified retirement plan;

 

    shareholders that are partnerships or entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes or other pass-through entities or owners thereof;

 

S-19


Table of Contents
    shareholders that own, or are deemed to own, more than five percent (5%) of our outstanding common stock (except to the extent specifically set forth below);

 

    shareholders subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

    financial institutions, banks and thrifts;

 

    insurance companies;

 

    tax-exempt entities;

 

    real estate investment trusts;

 

    “controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies” or corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

    broker-dealers or dealers in securities or foreign currencies; and

 

    traders in securities that use a mark-to-market method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If a partnership (including an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds our common stock, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership (including an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holding our common stock, you should consult your tax advisor.

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND SHOULD NOT BE VIEWED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS CONSIDERING THE PURCHASE OF OUR COMMON STOCK SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATION AS WELL AS THE APPLICABILITY AND EFFECT OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAX LAWS OR TAX TREATIES AND ANY OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS.

Distributions on Common Stock

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. In the event we do make such cash distributions, which will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, these distributions generally will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If any such distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a non-taxable return of capital to the extent of the non-U.S. holder’s tax basis in our common stock and thereafter as capital gain from the sale or exchange of such common stock. See “—Gain on Disposition of Common Stock” below. Dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder of our common stock that are not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States will be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate, or if an income tax treaty applies, a lower rate specified by the treaty. In order to receive a reduced treaty rate, a non-U.S. holder must provide to us or our withholding agent IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or applicable substitute or successor form for either) properly certifying eligibility for the reduced rate. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide us or our withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced treaty rate, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under an applicable income tax treaty.

Dividends that are effectively connected with a non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States and, if an income tax treaty so requires, are attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the United States, are taxed on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates and in the manner applicable to U.S. persons. In that case, we or our withholding agent will not have to withhold U.S.

 

S-20


Table of Contents

federal withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder complies with applicable certification and disclosure requirements (which may generally be met by providing an IRS Form W-8ECI). In addition, a “branch profits tax” may be imposed at a 30% rate (or a lower rate specified under an applicable income tax treaty) on a foreign corporation’s effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year, as adjusted for certain items. Non-U.S. holders should consult any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

Gain on Disposition of Common Stock

Subject to the discussion below regarding backup withholding, a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain recognized on a disposition of our common stock unless:

 

    the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States and, if an income tax treaty applies, is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the United States, in which case, the gain will be taxed on a net income basis at the U.S. federal income tax rates and in the manner applicable to U.S. persons, and if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, the branch profits tax described above may also apply;

 

    the non-U.S. holder is an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and meets other requirements, in which case, the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a flat 30% tax on the gain derived from the disposition (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses, provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses; or

 

    we are or have been a “United States real property holding corporation,” or USRPHC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes at any time during the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock.

Generally, a corporation is a USRPHC if the fair market value of its United States real property interests equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests and its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. We believe we currently are a USRPHC. If we are or become a USRPHC, a non-U.S. holder nonetheless will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding in respect of any gain realized on a sale or other disposition of our common stock so long as (i) our common stock is “regularly traded on an established securities market” for U.S. federal income tax purposes and (ii) such non-U.S. holder does not actually or constructively own, at any time during the applicable period described in the third bullet point, above, more than 5% of our outstanding common stock. We expect our common stock to be “regularly traded” on an established securities market, although we cannot guarantee it will be so traded. Accordingly, a non-U.S. holder who actually or constructively owns more than 5% of our common stock would be subject to U.S. federal income tax and withholding in respect of any gain realized on any sale or other disposition of common stock (taxed in the same manner as gain that is effectively connected income, except that the branch profits tax would not apply). Non-U.S. holders should consult their own advisor about the consequences that could result if we are, or become, a USRPHC.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding Tax

Dividends paid to you will generally be subject to information reporting and may be subject to U.S. backup withholding. You will be exempt from backup withholding if you properly provide a Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI certifying under penalties of perjury that you are a non-U.S. holder or otherwise meet documentary evidence requirements for establishing that you are a non-U.S. holder, or you otherwise establish an exemption. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividends and the tax withheld with respect to such dividends also may be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which you reside.

The gross proceeds from the disposition of our common stock may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding. If you receive payments of the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock to or through

 

S-21


Table of Contents

a U.S. office of a broker, the payment will be subject to both U.S. backup withholding and information reporting unless you properly provide a Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI certifying under penalties of perjury that you are a non-U.S. person (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that you are a U.S. person) or you otherwise establish an exemption. If you sell your common stock outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker and the sales proceeds are paid to you outside the United States, then the U.S. backup withholding and information reporting requirements generally will not apply to that payment. However, U.S. information reporting, but not backup withholding, will generally apply to a payment of sales proceeds, even if that payment is made outside the United States, if you sell your common stock through a non-U.S. office of a broker that has certain relationships with the United States unless the broker has documentary evidence in its files that you are a non-U.S. person and certain other conditions are met, or you otherwise establish an exemption.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. You may obtain a refund or credit of any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules that exceed your U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Federal Estate Tax

Our common stock that is owned (or treated as owned) by an individual who is not a citizen or resident of the United States (as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) at the time of death will be included in such individual’s gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, unless an applicable estate tax treaty provides otherwise, and, therefore, may be subject to U.S. federal estate tax.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act

Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, a 30% withholding tax will generally apply to dividends on, or gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, common stock paid to a foreign financial institution unless the foreign financial institution (i) enters into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury to, among other things, undertake to identify accounts held by certain U.S. persons or U.S.-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent it from complying with these reporting and other requirements, (ii) is resident in a country that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement with the United States in relation to such withholding and information reporting and the financial entity complies with related information reporting requirements of such country, or (iii) qualifies for an exemption from these rules. A foreign financial institution generally is a foreign entity that (i) accepts deposits in the ordinary course of a banking or similar business, (ii) as a substantial portion of its business, holds financial assets for the benefit of one or more other persons, or (iii) is an investment entity that, in general, primarily conducts as a business on behalf of customers trading in certain financial instruments, individual or collective portfolio management or otherwise investing, administering, or managing funds, money or certain financial assets on behalf of other persons. In addition, FATCA generally imposes a 30% withholding tax on the same types of payments to a non-financial foreign entity unless the entity certifies that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners, furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner, or otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. In either case, such payments would include U.S.-source dividends and the gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock that can produce U.S.-source dividends. FATCA’s withholding obligations generally will apply to payments of dividends on our common stock, and to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock made on or after January 1, 2019.

The final Treasury regulations and subsequent guidance provide detailed guidance regarding the reporting, withholding and other obligations under FATCA. Investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible impact of the FATCA rules on their investment in our common stock, including, without limitation, the process and deadlines for meeting the applicable requirements to prevent the imposition of the 30% withholding tax under FATCA.

 

S-22


Table of Contents

THE SUMMARY OF MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS ABOVE IS INCLUDED FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. POTENTIAL PURCHASERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK ARE URGED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS TO DETERMINE THE U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL AND NON-U.S. TAX CONSIDERATIONS OF PURCHASING, OWNING AND DISPOSING OF OUR COMMON STOCK.

 

S-23


Table of Contents

UNDERWRITING

Under the terms and subject to the conditions contained in an underwriting agreement dated June             , 2018, the selling stockholders identified in this prospectus supplement have agreed to sell to Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, the underwriter in this offering, and the underwriter has agreed to purchase from the selling stockholders, an aggregate of 4,000,000 shares of common stock:

The underwriting agreement provides that the underwriter is obligated to purchase all the shares of common stock in the offering if any are purchased, other than those shares covered by the option described below.

The selling stockholders have granted the underwriter a 30-day option to purchase up to 600,000 additional shares at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions. See “Selling Stockholders.”

The underwriter proposes to offer the shares of common stock from time to time for sale in one or more transactions on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, in the over-the-counter market, through negotiated transactions or otherwise at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices, subject to receipt and acceptance by it and subject to its right to reject any order in whole or in part. In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock offered hereby, the underwriter may be deemed to have received compensation in the form of underwriting discounts. The underwriter may affect such transactions by selling shares of common stock to or through dealers and such dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriter and/or purchasers of shares of common stock for whom it may act as agent or to whom it may sell as principal.

Pursuant to the registration rights agreement with the selling stockholders, we are obligated to pay the expenses incurred in relation to this offering. We estimate that our out-of-pocket expenses for this offering will be approximately $300,000. We have also agreed to reimburse the underwriter for certain of its expenses in an amount up to $20,000. All of the offering expenses will be paid by us.

The selling stockholders will receive all of the proceeds from this offering and we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares in this offering.

Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC has informed us that it does not expect sales to accounts over which it has discretionary authority to exceed 5% of the shares of common stock being offered.

In connection with this offering, we agreed that, subject to certain exceptions, we will not offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly, or file with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to, any shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for any shares of our common stock, or publicly disclose the intention to make any offer, sale, pledge, disposition or filing, without the prior written consent of Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC for a period of 45 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.

Each of the selling stockholders and our officers and directors have agreed in connection with this offering that they will not offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge or otherwise dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of our common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for any shares of our common stock, enter into a transaction that would have the same effect, or enter into any swap, hedge or other arrangement that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of our common stock, whether any of these transactions are to be settled by delivery of our common stock or other securities, in cash or otherwise, or publicly disclose the intention to make any offer, sale, pledge or disposition, or to enter into any transaction, swap, hedge or other arrangement, without, in each case, the prior written consent of Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC for a period of 45 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.

 

S-24


Table of Contents

These lock-up restrictions are subject to certain specific exceptions, including transfers of common stock as a bona fide gift or by will or intestate succession and transfers to such person’s immediate family or to a trust or to an entity controlled by such holder, provided that the recipient of the shares agrees to be bound by the same restrictions on sales and, in the case of our executive officers and directors, the right of such individuals to sell up to 100,000 shares in the aggregate.

Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, in its sole discretion, may release the common stock and other securities subject to the lock-up agreements described above in whole or in part at any time. When determining whether or not to release the common stock and other securities from lock-up agreements, Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC will consider, among other factors, the holder’s reasons for requesting the release and the number of shares of common stock or other securities for which the release is being requested.

We and the selling stockholders have agreed to indemnify the underwriter against liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribute to payments that the underwriter may be required to make in that respect.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TUSK.” On June 26, 2018, the closing price of our common stock was $39.78.

The underwriter and its affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment hedging, financing and brokerage activities. The underwriter and its affiliates have from time to time performed, and may in the future perform, various financial advisory, commercial banking and investment banking services for us and for our affiliates in the ordinary course of business for which they have received and would receive customary compensation. In particular, an affiliate of the underwriter is a lender under our revolving credit facility. In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriter and its affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of the issuer. The underwriter and its affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

In connection with the offering the underwriter may engage in stabilizing transactions, over-allotment transactions, syndicate covering transactions, penalty bids and passive market making in accordance with Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

 

    Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum.

 

    Over-allotment involves sales by the underwriter of shares in excess of the number of shares the underwriter is obligated to purchase, which creates a syndicate short position. The short position may be either a covered short position or a naked short position. In a covered short position, the number of shares over-allotted by the underwriter is not greater than the number of shares that they may purchase in the over-allotment option. In a naked short position, the number of shares involved is greater than the number of shares in the over-allotment option. The underwriter may close out any covered short position by either exercising its over-allotment option and/or purchasing shares in the open market.

 

   

Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the common stock in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions. In determining the source of shares to close out the short position, the underwriter will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the over-allotment option. If the underwriter sells more shares than could be covered by the over-allotment option, a naked short position, the position can only be closed out by buying shares

 

S-25


Table of Contents
 

in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriter is concerned that there could be downward pressure on the price of the shares in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in the offering.

 

    Penalty bids permit the underwriter to reclaim a selling concession from a broker/dealer when the shares originally sold by such broker/dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions.

 

    In passive market making a market maker in the common stock who is an underwriter or prospective underwriter may, subject to limitations, make bids for or purchases of our common stock until the time, if any, at which a stabilizing bid is made.

These stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock. As a result the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. These transactions may be effected on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or otherwise and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

A prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in electronic format may be made available on the web sites maintained by the underwriter, or selling group members, if any, participating in this offering and the underwriter may distribute prospectuses electronically. The underwriter may agree to allocate a number of shares to selling group members for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Internet distributions will be allocated by the underwriter that will make internet distributions on the same basis as other allocations.

Selling Restrictions

EEA restriction

In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area which has implemented the Prospectus Directive (each, a “Relevant Member State”) an offer to the public of any shares which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus (the “Shares”) may not be made in that Relevant Member State except that an offer to the public in that Relevant Member State of any Shares may be made at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Directive, if they have been implemented in that Relevant Member State:

 

  (a) to legal entities which are qualified investors as defined under the Prospectus Directive;

 

  (b) by the underwriter to fewer than 100, or, if the Relevant Member State has implemented the relevant provisions of the 2010 PD Amending Directive, 150, natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), as permitted under the Prospectus Directive; or

 

  (c) in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive,

provided that no such offer of Shares shall result in a requirement for the Company or the underwriter to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 16 of the Prospectus Directive.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any Shares in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any Shares to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase any Shares, as the same may be varied in that Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Member State, the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC (and amendments thereto, including the 2010 PD Amending Directive, to the extent implemented in the Relevant Member State), and includes any relevant implementing measure in each Relevant Member State and the expression “2010 PD Amending Directive” means Directive 2010/73/EU.

 

S-26


Table of Contents

United Kingdom

The underwriter has represented and agreed that:

 

  (a) it has only communicated or caused to be communicated and will only communicate or cause to be communicated an invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (the “FSMA”)) received by it in connection with the issue or sale of the shares in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of the FSMA does not apply to the Company; and

 

  (b) it has complied and will comply with all applicable provisions of the FSMA with respect to anything done by it in relation to the shares in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.

Notice to United Kingdom Investors

This prospectus is only being distributed to and is only directed at (i) persons who are outside the United Kingdom or (ii) investment professionals falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005 (the “Order”) or (iii) high net worth companies, and other persons to whom it may lawfully be communicated, falling within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Order (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”). The Shares are only available to, and any invitation, offer or agreement to subscribe, purchase or otherwise acquire such Shares will be engaged in only with, relevant persons. Any person who is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this document or any of its contents.

Hong Kong

The shares may not be offered or sold by means of any document other than (i) in circumstances which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32, Laws of Hong Kong), or (ii) to “professional investors” within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571, Laws of Hong Kong) and any rules made thereunder, or (iii) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” within the meaning of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32, Laws of Hong Kong), and no advertisement, invitation or document relating to the shares may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to shares which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571, Laws of Hong Kong) and any rules made thereunder.

Singapore

This prospectus has not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the shares may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the shares be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore, or the SFA, (ii) to a relevant person, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A), and in accordance with the conditions, specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA.

Where the shares are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 by a relevant person which is: (a) a corporation (which is not an accredited investor) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or (b) a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary is

 

S-27


Table of Contents

an accredited investor, shares, debentures and units of shares and debentures of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest in that trust shall not be transferable for 6 months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the shares under Section 275 except: (1) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A), and in accordance with the conditions, specified in Section 275 of the SFA; (2) where no consideration is given for the transfer; or (3) by operation of law.

Japan

The securities have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law of Japan, or the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law, and the underwriter has agreed that it will not offer or sell any securities, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any resident of Japan (which term as used herein means any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), or to others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to a resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance with, the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law and any other applicable laws, regulations and ministerial guidelines of Japan.

Notice to Canadian Residents

Resale Restrictions

The distribution of shares of common stock in Canada is being made only in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia on a private placement basis exempt from the requirement that we prepare and file a prospectus with the securities regulatory authorities in each province where trades of these securities are made. Any resale of shares of common stock in Canada must be made under applicable securities laws which may vary depending on the relevant jurisdiction, and which may require resales to be made under available statutory exemptions or under a discretionary exemption granted by the applicable Canadian securities regulatory authority. Purchasers are advised to seek legal advice prior to any resale of the securities.

Representations of Canadian Purchasers

By purchasing shares of common stock in Canada and accepting delivery of a purchase confirmation, a purchaser is representing to us and the dealer from whom the purchase confirmation is received that:

 

    the purchaser is entitled under applicable provincial securities laws to purchase the shares of common stock without the benefit of a prospectus qualified under those securities laws as it is an “accredited investor” as defined under National Instrument 45-106—Prospectus Exemptions,

 

    the purchaser is a “permitted client” as defined in National Instrument 31-103—Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations,

 

    where required by law, the purchaser is purchasing as principal and not as agent, and

 

    the purchaser has reviewed the text above under Resale Restrictions.

Conflicts of Interest

Canadian purchasers are hereby notified that the underwriter is relying on the exemption set out in section 3A.3 or 3A.4, if applicable, of National Instrument 33-105—Underwriting Conflicts from having to provide certain conflict of interest disclosure in this document.

Statutory Rights of Action

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if the offering memorandum (including any amendment thereto) such as this

 

S-28


Table of Contents

document contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser of these securities in Canada should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Enforcement of Legal Rights

All of our directors and officers as well as the experts named herein may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible for Canadian purchasers to effect service of process within Canada upon us or those persons. All or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of those persons may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible to satisfy a judgment against us or those persons in Canada or to enforce a judgment obtained in Canadian courts against us or those persons outside of Canada.

Taxation and Eligibility for Investment

Canadian purchasers of shares of common stock should consult their own legal and tax advisors with respect to the tax consequences of an investment in the shares of common stock in their particular circumstances and about the eligibility of the shares of common stock for investment by the purchaser under relevant Canadian legislation.

 

S-29


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of common stock that are offered hereby by the selling stockholders will be passed upon by Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP. Certain matters for the selling stockholders will be passed upon by Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP. The underwriter has been represented by Latham & Watkins LLP, Houston, Texas.

EXPERTS

The audited consolidated financial statements of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the report of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

The audited historical consolidated financial statements of Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC and its subsidiaries included in Exhibit 99.2 of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.’s current report on Form 8-K filed on October 27, 2017 have been so incorporated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

The information incorporated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. concerning estimates of our proven mineral reserves was derived from the report of John T. Boyd Company, independent mining engineers and geologists. All of such information has been included herein in reliance upon the authority of such firm as an expert in such matters.

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement. Information in this prospectus supplement supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus supplement.

We incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (except as indicated below with respect to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K):

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 filed with the SEC on February 28, 2018;

 

    our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended March 31, 2018 filed with the SEC on May 4, 2018;

 

    our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 31, 2018, May 31, 2018 (in each case except for Item 7.01) and June 12, 2018; and

 

    the description of our common stock contained in our Form 8-A filed with the SEC on October 13, 2016, including any amendment to that form that we may file in the future for the purpose of updating the description of our common stock.

In addition, we incorporate by reference herein the audited consolidated financial statements of Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC and its subsidiaries, which appear in our Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on October 27, 2017.

 

S-30


Table of Contents

In addition, all documents filed by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (other than those furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K, unless otherwise stated therein) after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the filing of a post-effective amendment that indicates that all securities offered hereby have been sold or that deregisters all securities remaining unsold, will be considered to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and to be a part of this prospectus supplement from the dates of the filing of such documents. Pursuant to General Instruction B of Form 8-K, any information submitted under Item 2.02, Results of Operations and Financial Condition, or Item 7.01, Regulation FD Disclosure, of Form 8-K is not deemed to be “filed” for the purpose of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, and we are not subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act with respect to information submitted under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K. We are not incorporating by reference any information submitted under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K into any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or into this prospectus supplement, unless otherwise indicated on such Form 8-K.

We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any documents incorporated by reference, including any exhibits to such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Mark Layton, Chief Financial Officer, Mammoth Energy Services, Inc., 14201 Caliber Drive, Suite 300, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73134; telephone: (405) 608-6007.

 

S-31


Table of Contents

Prospectus

Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

This prospectus relates to:

 

    up to $500,000,000 maximum offering price of shares of common stock to be offered by us from time to time in a primary offering; and

 

    up to 36,304,466 currently issued and outstanding shares of common stock to be offered from time to time by the selling stockholders named in this prospectus or in any supplement to this prospectus.

We or the selling stockholders may from time to time, in one or more offerings, offer and sell these shares of common stock through ordinary brokerage transactions, directly to market makers or through any other means described in the section of this prospectus entitled “Plan of Distribution,” including through sales to underwriters or dealers (in which case this prospectus will be accompanied by a prospectus supplement listing any underwriters, the compensation to be received by the underwriters, and the total amount of money that we or the selling stockholders will receive in such sale after expenses of the offering are paid).

We or the selling stockholders may elect to sell all, a portion or none of the shares of common stock offered hereby. We or the selling stockholders will determine the prices and terms of the sales at the time of each offering made by us or them. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock by the selling stockholders.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the common stock and the general manner in which we or the selling stockholders will offer the common stock. Each time we or the selling stockholders sell our common stock, to the extent required, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and all other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in our common stock. In making offers and sales pursuant to this prospectus, the selling stockholders may be deemed to be acting as underwriters, and their offers and sales may be deemed to be made indirectly on our behalf. For a more detailed discussion regarding the selling stockholders, please read “Selling Stockholders.”

Our common stock is listed on the on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TUSK.” The last reported sales price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 5, 2018 was $38.07 per share.

You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement carefully before you invest. You should also read the documents we refer to in the “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference” sections of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

 

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved the securities described herein or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is June 19, 2018.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     ii  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     iii  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     iii  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     v  

OUR COMPANY

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     2  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     30  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     31  

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

     32  

DESCRIPTION OF OUR COMMON STOCK

     35  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

     39  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     44  

LEGAL MATTERS

     47  

EXPERTS

     47  

GLOSSARY OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS AND ELECTRICAL INFRASTRUCTURE TERMS

     48  

 

i


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer and/or sell the common stock described in this prospectus, and the selling stockholders named in this prospectus or selling stockholders that may be identified in an applicable prospectus supplement may, from time to time, resell up to 36,304,466 shares of our common stock, in each case, in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the common stock we and/or selling stockholders may offer. Each time we or selling stockholders sell common stock, to the extent required, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. That prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. Before purchasing any of our common stock, you should carefully read both this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus and in any applicable prospectus supplement, including any information incorporated by reference. Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should not assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference is accurate at any date other than as of the date of each such document. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the date indicated on the cover page of such documents.

The distribution of this prospectus may be restricted by law in certain jurisdictions. You should inform yourself about and observe any of these restrictions. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer or solicitation by anyone in any jurisdiction in which the offer or solicitation is not authorized, or in which the person making the offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so, or to any person to whom it is unlawful to make the offer or solicitation.

When used in this prospectus or in any supplement to this prospectus, the terms “Mammoth,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires.

 

ii


Table of Contents

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We have filed a registration statement with the SEC under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, that registers the securities covered by this prospectus. The registration statement, including the exhibits attached thereto and other information incorporated by reference therein, contains additional relevant information about us. In addition, we file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements, information statements and other information with the SEC. You may read any materials we have filed with the SEC free of charge at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. Copies of all or any part of these documents may be obtained from such office upon the payment of the fees prescribed by the SEC. The public may obtain information on the operation of the public reference room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the site is http://www.sec.gov. The registration statement, including all exhibits thereto and amendments thereof, has been filed electronically with the SEC.

You can also find our SEC filings on our website at www.mammothenergy.com. The information contained on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” into this prospectus the information we provide in other documents filed by us with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. Any statement contained in a document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus is automatically updated and superseded if information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, or information that we later file with the SEC, modifies and replaces this information. We incorporate by reference the following documents that we have filed with the SEC (except as indicated below with respect to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K):

 

    our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2018;

 

    our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended March 31, 2018 filed with the SEC on May 4, 2018;

 

    our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 31, 2018 and May 31, 2018 (in each case except for Item 7.01); and

 

    the description of our common stock contained in our Form 8-A filed with the SEC on October 13, 2016, including any amendment to that form that we may file in the future for the purpose of updating the description of our common stock.

In addition, we incorporate by reference herein the audited consolidated financial statements of Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC and its subsidiaries, which appear in our Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-37917), filed with the SEC on October 27, 2017.

In addition, all documents filed by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (other than those furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K, unless otherwise stated therein) (i) after the date of the initial registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement and (ii) after the date of this prospectus, in each case, will be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and to be a part of this prospectus from the dates of the filing of such documents. Pursuant to General Instruction B of Form 8-K, any information submitted under Item 2.02, Results of Operations and Financial Condition, or Item 7.01, Regulation FD Disclosure, of Form 8-K is not deemed to be “filed” for the purpose of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, and we are not subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act with respect to information submitted under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K. We are not incorporating by reference any information submitted under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K into any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or into this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated on such Form 8-K.

 

iii


Table of Contents

We hereby undertake to provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request of any such person, a copy of any or all of the information that has been incorporated by reference into this prospectus (excluding exhibits, unless the exhibits are specifically incorporated). You may request a copy of this prospectus or any of the incorporated documents at no charge to you by writing to Mark Layton, Chief Financial Officer, Mammoth Energy Services, Inc., 14201 Caliber Drive, Suite 300, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73134; telephone: (405) 608-6007.

Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus will be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement.

 

iv


Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, which may include statements about our:

 

    business strategy;

 

    planned acquisitions and future capital expenditures;

 

    ability to obtain permits and governmental approvals;

 

    estimates of our sand reserves;

 

    technology;

 

    financial strategy;

 

    future operating results; and

 

    plans, objectives, expectations and intentions.

All of these types of statements, other than statements of historical fact included in this prospectus, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements may be found in the “Our Company,” “Risk Factors,” “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included, as applicable, in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q incorporated by reference herein and elsewhere in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “could,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “project,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “pursue,” “target,” “seek,” “objective” or “continue,” the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology.

The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are largely based on our expectations, which reflect estimates and assumptions made by our management. These estimates and assumptions reflect our best judgment based on currently known market conditions and other factors. Although we believe such estimates and assumptions to be reasonable, they are inherently uncertain and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that are beyond our control. In addition, our management’s assumptions about future events may prove to be inaccurate. Our management cautions all readers that the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus are not guarantees of future performance, and we cannot assure any reader that such statements will be realized or the forward-looking events and circumstances will occur. Actual results may differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements due to the many factors including those described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and other filings we make with the SEC incorporated by reference herein and elsewhere in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. All forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement or included in a document incorporated by reference herein or therein speak only as of the date hereof or thereof, respectively. We do not intend to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. These cautionary statements qualify all forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf.

 

v


Table of Contents

OUR COMPANY

We are an integrated, growth-oriented energy service company serving (i) companies engaged in the exploration and development of North American onshore unconventional oil and natural gas reserves and (ii) government-funded utilities, private utilities, public investor owned utilities and co-operative utilities through our energy infrastructure business. Our primary business objective is to grow our operations and create value for stockholders through organic opportunities and accretive acquisitions. Our suite of services includes pressure pumping services, infrastructure services, natural sand proppant services, contract land and directional drilling services and other energy services, including coil tubing, pressure control, flowback, cementing, equipment rental and remote accommodations. Our pressure pumping services division provides hydraulic fracturing services. Our infrastructure services division provides construction, upgrade, maintenance and repair services to the electrical infrastructure industry. Our natural sand proppant services division mines, processes and sells proppant used for hydraulic fracturing. Our contract land and directional drilling services division provides drilling rigs and crews for operators as well as rental equipment, such as mud motors and operational tools, for both vertical and horizontal drilling. In addition to these service divisions, we also provide coil tubing services, pressure control services, flowback services, cementing services, equipment rentals and remote accommodations. We believe that the services we offer play a critical role in increasing the ultimate recovery and present value of production streams from unconventional resources as well as maintaining and improving electrical infrastructure. Our complementary suite of services provides us with the opportunity to cross-sell our services and expand our customer base and geographic positioning.

We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. For as long as we are an emerging growth company, we will not be required to comply with certain requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports. We intend to take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company. For a description of the qualifications and other requirements applicable to emerging growth companies and certain elections that we have made due to our status as an emerging growth company, see “Risk Factors—Risks Inherent to Our Common Stock—For so long as we are an ‘emerging growth company’ we will not be required to comply with certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus.

Our principal executive offices are located at 14201 Caliber Drive, Suite 300, Oklahoma City, OK 73134, and our telephone number at that address is (405) 608-6007. Our website address is www.mammothenergy.com. Information contained on our website does not constitute part of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

1


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risks and all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement before deciding to invest in our common stock. You should also consider similar information contained in any annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and other document filed by us with the SEC after the date of this prospectus before deciding to invest in our common stock. We will also include in any applicable prospectus supplement a description of other risk factors applicable to an offering contemplated by such prospectus supplement. Additional risks and uncertainties not known to us or that we view as immaterial may also impair our business operations. Any of these risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and could result in a loss of all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business and the Industries We Serve

A portion of our business depends on the oil and natural gas industry and particularly on the level of exploration and production activity within the United States and Canada, and the ongoing volatility in prices for oil and natural gas has had, and continues to have, an adverse effect on our revenue, cash flows, profitability and growth.

Demand for our oil and natural gas products and services depends substantially on the level of expenditures by companies in the oil and natural gas industry. The significant decline in oil and natural gas prices during 2015 continued during the first part of 2016 before seeing a rebound during the second half of 2016 and throughout 2017. The low commodity price environment caused many of our customers to reduce spending on drilling, completion and other production activities. Although the prices for oil and natural gas have recently stabilized, the industry conditions are dynamic and the continuation or a weakening of commodity prices from current levels may result in a material adverse impact on certain of our customers’ liquidity and financial position resulting in spending reductions, delays in the collection of amounts owing to us and similar impacts. These conditions have had and may continue to have an adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and it is difficult to predict how long the current commodity price environment will continue.

Many factors over which we have no control affect the supply of and demand for, and our customers’ willingness to explore, develop and produce oil and natural gas, and therefore, influence prices for our products and services, including:

 

    the domestic and foreign supply of and demand for oil and natural gas;

 

    the level of prices, and expectations about future prices, of oil and natural gas;

 

    the level of global oil and natural gas exploration and production;

 

    the cost of exploring for, developing, producing and delivering oil and natural gas;

 

    the expected decline rates of current production;

 

    the price and quantity of foreign imports;

 

    political and economic conditions in oil producing countries, including the Middle East, Africa, South America and Russia;

 

    the ability of members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries to agree to and maintain oil price and production controls;

 

    speculative trading in crude oil and natural gas derivative contracts;

 

    the level of consumer product demand;

 

    the discovery rates of new oil and natural gas reserves;

 

2


Table of Contents
    contractions in the credit market;

 

    the strength or weakness of the U.S. dollar;

 

    available pipeline and other transportation capacity;

 

    the levels of oil and natural gas storage;

 

    weather conditions and other natural disasters;

 

    political instability in oil and natural gas producing countries;

 

    domestic and foreign tax policy;

 

    domestic and foreign governmental approvals and regulatory requirements and conditions;

 

    the continued threat of terrorism and the impact of military and other action, including military action in the Middle East;

 

    technical advances affecting energy consumption;

 

    the proximity and capacity of oil and natural gas pipelines and other transportation facilities;

 

    the price and availability of alternative fuels;

 

    the ability of oil and natural gas producers to raise equity capital and debt financing;

 

    merger and divestiture activity among oil and natural gas producers; and

 

    overall domestic and global economic conditions.

These factors and the volatility of the energy markets make it extremely difficult to predict future oil and natural gas price movements with any certainty. Any of the above factors could impact the level of oil and natural gas exploration and production activity and could ultimately have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Further, future weakness in commodity prices could impact our business going forward, and we could encounter difficulties such as an inability to access needed capital on attractive terms or at all, recognizing asset impairment charges, an inability to meet financial ratios contained in our debt agreements, a need to reduce our capital spending and other similar impacts.

The cyclicality of the oil and natural gas industry may cause our operating results to fluctuate.

We derive a portion of our revenues from companies in the oil and natural gas exploration and production industry, a historically cyclical industry with levels of activity that are significantly affected by the levels and volatility of oil and natural gas prices. We have, and may in the future, experience significant fluctuations in operating results as a result of the reactions of our customers to changes in oil and natural gas prices. For example, prolonged low commodity prices experienced by the oil and natural gas industry during 2015 and the first part of 2016, combined with adverse changes in the capital and credit markets, caused many exploration and production companies to reduce their capital budgets and drilling activity. This resulted in a significant decline in demand for oilfield services and adversely impacted the prices oilfield services companies could charge for their services. In addition, a majority of the service revenue we earn is based upon a charge for a relatively short period of time (e.g., an hour, a day, a week) for the actual period of time the service is provided to our customers. By contracting services on a short-term basis, we are exposed to the risks of a rapid reduction in market prices and utilization, with resulting volatility in our revenues.

If oil prices or natural gas prices decline, the demand for our oil and natural gas services could be adversely affected.

The demand for our oil and natural gas services is primarily determined by current and anticipated oil and natural gas prices and the related general production spending and level of drilling activity in the areas in which

 

3


Table of Contents

we have operations. Volatility or weakness in oil prices or natural gas prices (or the perception that oil prices or natural gas prices will decrease) affects the spending patterns of our customers and may result in the drilling of fewer new wells or lower production spending on existing wells. This, in turn, could result in lower demand for our services and may cause lower rates and lower utilization of our well service equipment. Any future decline in oil and gas prices could materially affect the demand for our services and our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Prices for oil and natural gas historically have been extremely volatile and are expected to continue to be volatile in the years to come. During 2017, West Texas Intermediate posted prices ranged from $42.53 to $60.42 per Bbl and the Henry Hub spot market price of natural gas ranged from $2.56 to $3.72 per MMBtu. During the first quarter of 2018, West Texas Intermediate posted prices ranged from $59.19 to $66.14 per Bbl and the Henry Hub spot market price of natural gas ranged from $2.55 to $3.63 per MMBtu. If the prices of oil and natural gas decline from current levels, our operations, financial condition and level of expenditures may be materially and adversely affected.

Our business is difficult to evaluate because we have a limited operating history.

Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. was formed in June 2016, and did not conduct any material business operations prior to its initial public offering, or the IPO, which closed on October 19, 2016. Prior to the IPO, Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Mammoth Energy Partners LP, referred to as Mammoth Partners, which was originally formed in February 2014. Except as expressly noted otherwise, the historical financial information of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. and operational data for the periods prior to October 12, 2016 is that of Mammoth Partners and its consolidated subsidiaries. These subsidiaries were formed or acquired between 2007 and 2016. As a result, there is only limited historical financial and operating information available upon which to base your evaluation of our performance.

Our customer base is concentrated and the loss of one or more of our significant customers, or their failure to pay the amounts they owe us, could cause our revenue to decline substantially.

Our top five customers accounted for approximately 71% and 80%, respectively, of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. Gulfport Energy Corporation, or Gulfport, was our largest customer for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 accounting for approximately 30% and 57%, respectively, of our revenue. Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, or PREPA, was our second largest customer for the year ended December 31, 2017 accounting for approximately 29% of our revenue. For the three months ended March 31, 2018, PREPA was our largest customer and Gulfport was our second largest customer, representing 64% and 12%, respectively, of our total revenue for such period. It is likely that we will continue to derive a significant portion of our revenue from a relatively small number of customers in the future. If a major customer decided not to continue to use our services, our revenue would decline and our operating results and financial condition could be harmed. In addition, we are subject to credit risk due to the concentration of our customer base. Any nonperformance by our counterparties, including their failure to pay the amounts they owe us on a timely basis or at all, either as a result of changes in financial and economic conditions or otherwise, could have an adverse impact on our operating results and could adversely affect our liquidity.

One of our infrastructure services subsidiaries has entered into service contracts with PREPA, which provide for aggregate payments to us of up to approximately $1.8 billion. PREPA is currently subject to pending bankruptcy proceedings. In the event that PREPA does not have or does not obtain the funds necessary to satisfy its payment obligations to our subsidiary under the contracts or terminates the contracts prior to the end of their terms, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

On October 19, 2017, one of our subsidiaries, Cobra Acquisitions LLC, or Cobra, and PREPA entered into an emergency master services agreement for repairs to PREPA’s electrical grid as a result of Hurricane Maria. The one-year contract, as amended through February 27, 2018, provides for payments of up to $945.4 million. On May 26, 2018, Cobra and PREPA entered into a new one-year, $900.0 million master services agreement to

 

4


Table of Contents

provide additional repair services and begin the initial phase of reconstruction of the electrical power system on Puerto Rico. PREPA is currently subject to bankruptcy proceedings pending in the U.S. District Court for the District of Puerto Rico. As a result, PREPA’s ability to meet its payment obligations under the contracts will be largely dependent upon funding from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, or FEMA, or other sources. PREPA’s contracting practices in connection with restoration and repair of PREPA’s electrical grid on Puerto Rico, and the terms of certain of those contracts, have been subject to critical comment and are the subject of review and hearings by U.S. federal and Puerto Rican governmental entities. In 2017, a contract for restoration and repair services entered into by PREPA with an unrelated third party was terminated by PREPA. In the event that PREPA does not have or does not obtain the funds necessary to satisfy its current obligations to Cobra under the contracts or terminates the contracts prior to the end of the contract terms, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, government contracts are subject to various uncertainties, restrictions and regulations, including oversight audits by government representatives and profit and cost controls, which could result in withholding or delayed payments to us or efforts to recover payments already made.

We provide the majority of our infrastructure services to one customer, and the termination of this relationship could adversely affect our operations.

We provide infrastructure services that focus on the repair, maintenance and construction of transmission and distribution networks. The majority of our revenue from this business is derived from PREPA pursuant to contracts entered into on October 19, 2017, as subsequently amended, and on May 26, 2018, each with a term of up to one year. We cannot assure you that we will be able to continue our contracts with PREPA on favorable terms and conditions or at all. Likewise, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain one or more replacement contracts with other customers sufficient to continue providing the level of services as we currently do with PREPA. The termination of our relationship with PREPA could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We provide the majority of our hydraulic fracturing completion services to a limited number of customers, and the termination of one or more of these relationships could adversely affect our operations.

We provide completion services, which services include hydraulic fracturing. During the three months ended March 31, 2018 and the year ended December 31, 2017, 38% and 52.1%, respectively, of our revenue from this business was derived from Gulfport pursuant to a contract that expires in September 2018. We are in discussions with Gulfport regarding extending this contract beyond the current expiration date, but have not entered into a definitive agreement to do so. We cannot assure you that we will be able to extend or renew our contract with Gulfport on favorable terms and conditions or at all. Likewise, we cannot assure you that we would be able to obtain a replacement long-term contract with other customers sufficient to continue providing the level of services as we currently do with Gulfport. The termination of our relationship or nonrenewal of our contract with Gulfport, or one or more of our other customers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We provide natural sand proppant to a limited number of customers, and the termination of one or more of these relationships could adversely affect our operations.

We provide natural sand proppant used for hydraulic fracturing. Historically, we have derived a large portion of our revenue from this business from Gulfport pursuant to a contract that expires in September 2018. We are in discussions with Gulfport regarding extending this contract beyond the current expiration date, but have not entered into a definitive agreement to do so. The termination of our relationship or nonrenewal of our contract with Gulfport, or one or more of our other customers, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

5


Table of Contents

Our failure to receive payment for contract change orders or adequately recover on claims brought by us against customers related to payment terms and costs could materially and adversely affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

We have in the past brought, and may in the future bring, claims against our customers related to, among other things, the payment terms of our contracts and change orders relating to such contracts. These types of claims can occur due to, among other things, customer-caused delays or changes in project scope, both of which may result in additional costs. In some instances, these claims can be the subject of lengthy legal proceedings, and it is difficult to predict the timing and outcome of such proceedings. Our failure to promptly and adequately recover on these types of claims could have an adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Deterioration of the commodity price environment can negatively impact oil and natural gas exploration and production companies and, in some cases, impair their ability to timely pay for products or services provided or result in their insolvency or bankruptcy, any of which exposes us to credit risk of our oil and natural gas exploration and production customers.

In weak economic and commodity price environments, we may experience increased difficulties, delays or failures in collecting outstanding receivables from our customers, due to, among other reasons, a reduction in their cash flow from operations, their inability to access the credit markets and, in certain cases, their insolvencies. Such increases in collection issues could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. We cannot assure you that the reserves we have established for potential credit losses will be sufficient to meet write-offs of uncollectible receivables or that our losses from such receivables will be consistent with our expectations. To the extent one or more of our key customers commences bankruptcy proceedings, our contracts with these customers may be subject to rejection under applicable provisions of the United States Bankruptcy Code, or may be renegotiated. Further, during any such bankruptcy proceeding, prior to assumption, rejection or renegotiation of such contracts, the bankruptcy court may temporarily authorize the payment of value for our services less than contractually required, which could also have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Delays and reductions in government appropriations can negatively impact energy infrastructure construction, maintenance and repair projects and may impair the ability of our energy infrastructure customers to timely pay for products or services provided or result in their insolvency or bankruptcy, any of which exposes us to credit risk of our infrastructure customers.

Many of our infrastructure customers derive funding from federal, state and local bodies. Delayed or reduced appropriations may cancel, curtail or delay projects and may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Competition within the energy services industry may adversely affect our ability to market our services.

The energy services industry is highly competitive and fragmented and includes numerous small companies capable of competing effectively in our markets on a local basis, as well as large companies that possess substantially greater financial and other resources than we do. Our larger competitors’ greater resources could allow those competitors to compete more effectively than we can. The amount of equipment available may exceed demand, which could result in active price competition. Many contracts are awarded on a bid basis, which may further increase competition based primarily on price. In addition, adverse market conditions lower demand for well servicing equipment, which results in excess equipment and lower utilization rates. If market conditions in our oil-oriented operating areas were to deteriorate or if adverse market conditions in our natural gas-oriented operating areas persist, utilization rates may decline.

 

6


Table of Contents

Shortages, delays in delivery and interruptions in supply of drill pipe, replacement parts, other equipment, supplies and materials may adversely affect our contract land and directional drilling business or our pressure pumping business.

During periods of increased demand for drilling and completion services, the industry has experienced shortages of drill pipe, replacement parts, other equipment, supplies and materials, including, in the case of our pressure pumping operations, replacement parts, other equipment, proppants, acid, gel and water. These shortages can cause the price of these items to increase significantly and require that orders for the items be placed well in advance of expected use. In addition, any interruption in supply could result in significant delays in delivery of equipment and materials or prevent operations. Interruptions may be caused by, among other reasons:

 

    weather issues, whether short-term such as a hurricane, or long-term such as a drought; and

 

    shortage in the number of vendors able or willing to provide the necessary equipment, supplies and materials, including as a result of commitments of vendors to other customers or third parties.

These price increases, delays in delivery and interruptions in supply may require us to increase capital and repair expenditures and incur higher operating costs. Severe shortages, delays in delivery and interruptions in supply could limit our ability to construct and operate our drilling rigs or pressure pumping fleets and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Oilfield services equipment, refurbishment and new asset construction projects, as well as the reactivation of oilfield service assets that have been idle for six months or longer, are subject to risks which could cause delays or cost overruns and adversely affect our business, cash flows, results of operations and financial position.

Oilfield services equipment or assets being upgraded, converted or re-activated following a period of inactivity may experience start-up complications and may encounter other operational problems that could result in significant delays, uncompensated downtime, reduced dayrates or the cancellation, termination or non-renewal of contracts. Construction and upgrade projects are subject to risks of delay or significant cost overruns inherent in any large construction project from numerous factors, including the following:

 

    shortages of equipment, materials or skilled labor;

 

    unscheduled delays in the delivery of ordered materials and equipment or shipyard construction;

 

    failure of equipment to meet quality and/or performance standards;

 

    financial or operating difficulties of equipment vendors;

 

    unanticipated actual or purported change orders;

 

    inability by us or our customers to obtain required permits or approvals, or to meet applicable regulatory standards in our areas of operations;

 

    unanticipated cost increases between order and delivery;

 

    adverse weather conditions and other events of force majeure;

 

    design or engineering changes; and

 

    work stoppages and other labor disputes.

The occurrence of any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, results of operations and financial position.

 

7


Table of Contents

Advancements in oilfield service technologies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The oilfield services industry is characterized by rapid and significant technological advancements and introductions of new products and services using new technologies. As new horizontal and directional drilling, pressure pumping, pressure control and well service technologies develop, we may be placed at a competitive disadvantage, and competitive pressure may force us to implement new technologies at a substantial cost. We may not be able to successfully acquire or use new technologies. Further, our customers are increasingly demanding the services of newer, higher specification drilling rigs. There can be no assurance that we will:

 

    have sufficient capital resources to build new, technologically advanced equipment and other assets;

 

    successfully integrate additional oilfield service equipment and other assets;

 

    effectively manage the growth and increased size of our organization, equipment and other assets;

 

    successfully deploy idle, stacked or additional oilfield service assets;

 

    maintain crews necessary to operate additional drilling rigs or pressure pumping service equipment; or

 

    successfully improve our financial condition, results of operations, business or prospects.

If we are not successful in building or acquiring new oilfield service equipment and other assets or upgrading our existing rigs and equipment in a timely and cost-effective manner, we could lose market share. New technologies, services or standards could render some of our services, equipment and other assets obsolete, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, cash flows, results of operations and financial condition.

Our business depends upon our ability to obtain specialized equipment and parts from third-party suppliers, and we may be vulnerable to delayed deliveries and future price increases.

We purchase specialized equipment and parts from third party suppliers. At times during the business cycle, there is a high demand for hydraulic fracturing, coiled tubing and other oilfield services and extended lead times to obtain equipment needed to provide these services. Further, there are a limited number of suppliers that manufacture the equipment we use. Should our current suppliers be unable or unwilling to provide the necessary equipment and parts or otherwise fail to deliver the products timely and in the quantities required, any resulting delays in the provision of our services could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, future price increases for this type of equipment and parts could negatively impact our ability to purchase new equipment to update or expand our existing fleet or to timely repair equipment in our existing fleet.

An increase in the prices of certain materials used in our businesses could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows.

We are exposed to market risk of increases in certain commodity prices of materials, such as copper and steel, which are used as components of supplies or materials utilized in some of our infrastructure and pressure pumping businesses. An increase in these materials could increase our operating costs, limit our ability to service our customers’ needs or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Inaccuracies in estimates of volumes and qualities of our sand reserves could result in lower than expected sales and higher than expected production costs.

On May 26, 2017, we acquired substantially all of the assets of Chieftain Sand and Proppant, LLC and Chieftain Sand and Proppant Barron, LLC, unrelated third party sellers, following our successful bid in a bankruptcy court auction, which assets include a wet and dry plant and sand mine located on approximately 608

 

8


Table of Contents

acres in New Auburn, Wisconsin. Also, on June 5, 2017, we acquired from Gulfport, certain affiliates of Wexford Capital LP, which we refer to as Wexford, and Rhino Exploration LLC, which we refer to as Rhino, all outstanding membership interests in Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC, which owns Taylor Frac, LLC, Taylor Real Estate Investments, LLC and South River Road, LLC (collectively referred to as Taylor Frac). These acquisitions added sand reserves to our operations and increased our production capacity.

Our frac sand reserves estimates are by nature imprecise and depend to some extent on statistical inferences drawn from available data, which may prove unreliable. There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities and qualities of reserves and non-reserve frac sand deposits and costs to mine recoverable reserves, including many factors beyond our control. Estimates of economically recoverable frac sand reserves necessarily depend on a number of factors and assumptions, all of which may vary considerably from actual results, such as:

 

    geological and mining conditions and/or effects from prior mining that may not be fully identified by available data or that may differ from experience;

 

    assumptions concerning future prices of frac sand, operating costs, mining technology improvements, development costs and reclamation costs; and

 

    assumptions concerning future effects of regulation, including the issuance of required permits and taxes by governmental agencies.

Any inaccuracy in the estimates related to our frac sand reserves and non-reserve frac sand deposits could result in lower than expected sales and higher than expected costs. For example, these estimates of our proven reserves assume that our revenue and cost structure will remain relatively constant over the life of our reserves. If these assumptions prove to be inaccurate, some or all of our reserves may not be economically mineable, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. If the estimates of the quality of our reserves, including the volumes of the various specifications of those reserves, prove to be inaccurate, we may incur significantly higher excavation costs without corresponding increases in revenues, we may not be able to meet our contractual obligations, or our facilities may have a shorter than expected reserve life, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

As part of our natural sand proppant services business, we rely on third parties for raw materials and transportation, and the suspension or termination of our relationship with one or more of these third parties could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

As part of our natural sand proppant services business, we mine and process sand into premium monocrystalline sand, a specialized mineral that is used as a proppant (also known as frac sand) at our Barron County and Jackson County, Wisconsin plants. We also buy processed sand from suppliers on the spot market. In addition, we also buy raw or washed sand and process it at our indoor sand processing plant located in Pierce County, Wisconsin. We sell natural sand proppant to our customers for use in their hydraulic fracturing operations to enhance the recovery rates of hydrocarbons from oil and natural gas wells. We also provide logistics solutions to deliver our frac sand products to our customers. Because our customers generally find it impractical to store frac sand in large quantities near their job sites, they seek to arrange for product to be delivered where and as needed, which requires predictable and efficient loading and shipping of product. To facilitate our logistics and transload facility capabilities, we contract with third party providers to transport our frac sand products to railroad facilities for delivery to our customers. We also lease a railcar fleet from various third parties to deliver our frac sand products to our customers and lease or otherwise utilize origin and destination transloading facilities. The suspension, termination or nonrenewal of our relationship with any one or more of these third parties involved in the sourcing, transportation and delivery of our frac sand products could result in material operational delays, increase our operating costs, limit our ability to service our customers’ wells or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

9


Table of Contents

Future performance of our natural sand proppant services business will depend on our ability to succeed in competitive markets, and on our ability to appropriately react to potential fluctuations in the demand for and supply of frac sand.

In our natural sand proppant services business, we operate in a highly competitive market that is characterized by a small number of large, national producers and a larger number of small, regional or local producers. Competition in the industry is based on price, consistency and quality of product, site location, distribution and logistics capabilities, customer service, reliability of supply and breadth of product offering. The large, national producers with whom we compete include Badger Mining Corporation, Fairmount Santrol Holdings, Inc., Hi-Crush Partners LP, Preferred Proppants LLC, Unimin Corporation, Smart Sand, Inc., Emerge Energy Services LP and U.S. Silica Holdings Inc. Our larger competitors may have greater financial and other resources than we do, may develop technology superior to ours, may have production facilities that are located closer to sand mines from which raw sand is mined or to their key customers than our facilities or have a more cost effective access to raw sand and transportation facilities than we do. Should the demand for hydraulic fracturing services decrease, prices in the frac sand market could materially decrease as producers may seek to preserve market share or exit the market and sell frac sand at below market prices. In addition, oil and natural gas exploration and production companies and other providers of hydraulic fracturing services could acquire their own frac sand reserves, develop or expand frac sand production capacity or otherwise fulfill their own proppant requirements and existing or new frac sand producers could add to or expand their frac sand production capacity, which may negatively impact pricing and demand for our frac sand. We may not be able to compete successfully against either our larger or smaller competitors in the future, and competition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Demand for our frac sand products could be reduced by changes in well stimulation processes and technologies, as well as changes in governmental regulations and other applicable law.

As part of our natural sand proppant services business, we mine, process and sell frac sand products to our customers for use in their hydraulic fracturing operations to enhance the recovery rates of hydrocarbons from oil and natural gas wells. A significant shift in demand from frac sand to other proppants, or the development of new processes to replace hydraulic fracturing altogether, could cause a decline in the demand for the frac sand we produce and result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Further, federal and state governments and agencies have adopted various laws and regulations or are evaluating proposed legislation and regulations that are focused on the extraction of shale gas or oil using hydraulic fracturing, a process which utilizes proppants such as those that we produce. Future hydraulic fracturing-related legislation or regulations could restrict the ability of our customers to utilize, or increase the cost associated with, hydraulic fracturing, which could reduce demand for our proppants and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. For additional information regarding the regulation of hydraulic fracturing, see “—Risks Related to Our Business and the Oil and Natural Gas Industry—Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives relating to hydraulic fracturing could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays.”

An increase in the supply of raw frac sand could make it more difficult for us to renew or replace our existing contracts on favorable terms, or at all.

If significant new reserves of raw frac sand are discovered and developed, we may be unable to renew or replace our existing contracts at favorable pricing, or at all. Specifically, if frac sand becomes more readily available, both in volume and geographic location, our customers may not be willing to enter into long-term contracts, or may demand lower prices, or both, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Further, reduced demand for frac sand could result in railcar over-capacity, requiring us to pay railcar storage fees while, at the same time, continuing to incur lease costs for those railcars in storage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

10


Table of Contents

We face distribution and logistics challenges in our business.

In response to various factors, including fluctuations in oil and natural gas prices, our customers may shift their focus among resource plays, some of which can be located in geographic areas that do not have well-developed transportation and distribution infrastructure systems. Some geographic areas, including the areas in which our sand facilities are located, have limited access to railroads. Any interruption or delay in the railroad access or service may affect our ability to ship and/or the timing of shipment of our frac sand to our customers, which may adversely affect our revenues or result in increased costs, and thus could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition. Serving our customers in these less-developed areas presents distribution and other operational challenges that may affect our sales and could negatively impact our operating costs. Labor disputes, system constraints, derailments, adverse weather conditions or other environmental events, an increasingly tight railcar leasing market and changes to rail freight systems, among other factors, could interrupt or limit available transportation services, could affect our ability to timely and cost-effectively deliver our frac sand to our customers and could provide a competitive advantage to our competitors located in closer proximity to our customers. Failure to find long-term solutions to these logistics challenges could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Increasing transportation and related costs could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Because of the relatively low cost of producing frac sand, transportation expenses and related costs, including freight charges, fuel surcharges, transloading fees, switching fees, railcar lease costs, demurrage costs and storage fees, comprise a significant component of the total delivered cost of frac sand sales. The relatively high transportation expenses and related costs tend to favor frac sand producers located in close proximity to their customers. As we expand our frac sand production, our need for additional transportation services and transload network access increases. We contract with truck and rail services to move frac sand from our production facilities to transload sites and our customers, and increased costs under these contracts could adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, we bear the risk of non-delivery under our contracts. A significant increase in transportation service rates, a reduction in the dependability or availability of transportation or transload services, or relocation of our customers’ businesses to areas farther from our plants or transloading facilities could impair our ability to deliver our products economically to our customers and our ability to expand into different markets.

Diminished access to water and inability to secure or maintain necessary permits may adversely affect operations of our frac sand processing plants.

The processing of raw sand and production of natural sand proppant require significant amounts of water. As a result, securing water rights and water access is necessary to operate our processing facilities. If the areas where our facilities are located experience water shortages, restrictions or any other constraints due to drought, contamination or otherwise, there may be additional costs associated with securing water access. Although we have obtained water rights to service our activities when we are operating our processing plants, the amount of water that we are entitled to use pursuant to our water rights must be determined by the appropriate regulatory authorities. Such regulatory authorities may amend the regulations regarding such water rights, increase the cost of maintaining such water rights or eliminate our current water rights, and we may be unable to retain all or a portion of such water rights. If implemented, these new regulations could also affect local municipalities and other industrial operations and could have a material adverse effect on costs involved in operating our processing plant. Such changes in laws, regulations or government policy and related interpretations pertaining to water rights may alter the environment in which we do business, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Additionally, a water discharge permit may be required to properly dispose of water at our processing sites when in operation. Certain of our facilities are also required to obtain storm water permits. The water discharge, storm water or any other permits we may be required to have in order to conduct our frac sand processing operations is subject to regulatory discretion, and any inability to obtain or maintain the necessary permits could have an adverse effect on our ability to run such operations.

 

11


Table of Contents

The customized nature, and remote location, of the modular camps that we provide and service present unique challenges that could adversely affect our ability to successfully operate our remote accommodations business.

We rely on a third-party subcontractor to manufacture and install the customized modular units used in our remote accommodations business. These customized units often take a considerable amount of time to manufacture and, once manufactured, often need to be delivered to remote areas that are frequently difficult to access by traditional means of transportation. In the event we are unable to provide these modular units in a timely fashion, we may not be entitled to full, or any, payment therefor under the terms of our contracts with customers. In addition, the remote location of the modular camps often makes it difficult to install and maintain the units, and our failure, on a timely basis, to have such units installed and provide maintenance services could result in our breach of, and non-payment by our customers under, the terms of our customer contracts. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our remote accommodation business and our overall financial condition and results of operations.

Health and food safety issues and food-borne illness concerns could adversely affect our remote accommodations business.

We provide food services to our customers as part of our remote accommodations business and, as a result, face health and food safety issues that are common in the food and hospitality industries. Food-borne illnesses, such as E. coli, hepatitis A, trichinosis or salmonella, and food safety issues have occurred in the food industry in the past and could occur in the future. Our reliance on third-party food suppliers and distributors increases the risk that food-borne illness incidents could be caused by factors outside of our control. New illnesses resistant to any precautions may develop in the future, or diseases with long incubation periods could arise. Further, the remote nature of our accommodation facilities and related food services may increase the risk of contamination of our food supply and create additional health and hygiene concerns due to the limited access to modern amenities and conveniences that may not be faced by other food service providers or hospitality businesses operating in urban environment. If our customers become ill from food-borne illness, we could be forced to close some or all of our remote accommodation facilities on a temporary basis or otherwise. Any such incidents and/or any report of publicity linking us to incidents of food-borne illness or other food safety issues, including food tampering or contamination, could adversely affect our remote accommodations business as well as our overall financial condition and results of operations.

Development of permanent infrastructure in the Canadian oil sands region or other locations where we locate our remote accommodations could negatively impact our remote accommodations business.

Our remote accommodations business specializes in providing modular housing and related services for work forces in remote areas which lack the infrastructure typically available in towns and cities. If permanent towns, cities and municipal infrastructure develop in the oil sands region of northern Alberta, Canada or other regions where we locate our modular camps, then demand for our accommodations could decrease as customer employees move to the region and choose to utilize permanent housing and food services.

Revenue generated and expenses incurred by our remote accommodation business are denominated in the Canadian dollar and could be negatively impacted by currency fluctuations.

Our remote accommodation business generates revenue and incurs expenses that are denominated in the Canadian dollar. These transactions could be materially affected by currency fluctuations. Changes in currency exchange rates could adversely affect our combined results of operations or financial position. We also maintain cash balances denominated in the Canadian dollar. At March 31, 2018, we had $2.9 million of cash in Canadian dollars, in Canadian accounts. A 10% increase in the strength of the Canadian dollar versus the U.S. dollar would have resulted in an increase in pre-tax income of approximately $0.01 million as of March 31, 2018. Conversely, a corresponding decrease in the strength of the Canadian dollar would have resulted in a comparable decrease in pre-tax income. We have not hedged our exposure to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and, as a result, could incur unanticipated translation gains or losses.

 

12


Table of Contents

Certain of our completion and production services, particularly our hydraulic fracturing services, are substantially dependent on the availability of water. Restrictions on our ability, or our customers’ ability, to obtain water may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Water is an essential component of deep shale oil and natural gas production during both the drilling and hydraulic fracturing processes. Over the past several years, certain of the areas have experienced extreme drought conditions and competition for water in such shales is growing. As a result of this severe drought, some local water districts have begun restricting the use of water subject to their jurisdiction for hydraulic fracturing to protect local water supply. Our inability, or customers’ inability, to obtain water to use in our operations from local sources or to effectively utilize flowback water could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We rely on a few key employees whose absence or loss could adversely affect our business.

Many key responsibilities within our business have been assigned to a small number of employees. The loss of services from one or more of these employees could adversely affect our business. We do not have any written employment agreement with our named executive officers at this time. Further, we do not maintain “key person” life insurance policies on any of our employees. As a result, we are not insured against any losses resulting from the death of our key employees.

If we are unable to employ a sufficient number of skilled and qualified workers, our capacity and profitability could be diminished and our growth potential could be impaired.

The delivery of our products and services requires skilled and qualified workers with specialized skills and experience who can perform physically demanding work. As a result of the volatility of the energy services industry and the demanding nature of the work, workers may choose to pursue employment in fields that offer a more desirable work environment at wage rates that are competitive. Our ability to be productive and profitable will depend upon our ability to employ and retain skilled workers. In addition, our ability to expand our operations depends in part on our ability to increase the size of our skilled labor force. The demand for skilled workers is high, and the supply is limited. As a result, competition for experienced energy service personnel is intense, and we face significant challenges in competing for crews and management with large and well established competitors. A significant increase in the wages paid by competing employers could result in a reduction of our skilled labor force, increases in the wage rates that we must pay, or both. If either of these events were to occur, our capacity and profitability could be diminished and our growth potential could be impaired.

Unionization efforts could increase our costs or limit our flexibility.

Presently, none of our employees work under collective bargaining agreements. Unionization efforts have been made from time to time within our industries, to varying degrees of success. Any such unionization could increase our costs or limit our flexibility.

Our operations may be limited or disrupted in certain parts of the continental U.S., Puerto Rico and Canada during severe weather conditions, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

We provide pressure pumping and well services and contract land and directional drilling services in the Utica, STACK, SCOOP, Permian Basin, Marcellus, Granite Wash, Cana Woodford and Eagle Ford resource plays located in the continental U.S. We provide infrastructure services in the northeast, southwest and midwest portions of the United States and Puerto Rico. We provide remote accommodation services in the oil sands in Alberta, Canada. We serve these markets through our facilities and service centers located in Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Kentucky, Puerto Rico and Alberta, Canada. For the first quarter 2018 and the

 

13


Table of Contents

years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we generated approximately 19%, 42% and 84%, respectively, of our revenue from our operations in Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Canada where weather conditions may be severe, particularly during winter and spring months. Repercussions of severe weather conditions may include:

 

    curtailment of services;

 

    weather-related damage to equipment resulting in suspension of operations;

 

    weather-related damage to our facilities;

 

    inability to deliver equipment and materials to jobsites in accordance with contract schedules; and

 

    loss of productivity.

Many municipalities, including those in Ohio and Wisconsin, impose bans or other restrictions on the use of roads and highways, which include weight restrictions on the paved roads that lead to our jobsites due to the muddy conditions caused by spring thaws. This can limit our access to these jobsites and our ability to service wells in these areas. These constraints and the resulting shortages or high costs could delay our operations and materially increase our operating and capital costs in those regions. Weather conditions may also affect the price of crude oil and natural gas, and related demand for our services. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Concerns over general economic, business or industry conditions may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.

Concerns over global economic conditions, energy costs, geopolitical issues, inflation, the availability and cost of credit and the European, Asian and the United States financial markets have contributed to economic uncertainty and diminished expectations for the global economy. These factors, combined with volatility in commodity prices, business and consumer confidence and unemployment rates, have in the past precipitated and may in the future precipitate an economic slowdown. Concerns about global economic growth may have a significant adverse impact on global financial markets and commodity prices. If the economic climate in the United States or abroad deteriorates, worldwide demand for petroleum products could diminish, which could impact the price at which oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids can be sold, which could affect the ability of our customers to continue operations and ultimately adversely impact our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.

A terrorist attack or armed conflict could harm our business.

The occurrence or threat of terrorist attacks in the United States or other countries, anti-terrorist efforts and other armed conflicts involving the United States or other countries, including continued hostilities in the Middle East, may adversely affect the United States and global economies and could prevent us from meeting our financial and other obligations. If any of these events occur, the resulting political instability and societal disruption could reduce overall demand for oil and natural gas, potentially putting downward pressure on demand for our services and causing a reduction in our revenues. Oil and natural gas related facilities could be direct targets of terrorist attacks, and our operations could be adversely impacted if infrastructure integral to our customers’ operations is destroyed or damaged. Costs for insurance and other security may increase as a result of these threats, and some insurance coverage may become more difficult to obtain, if available at all.

Our operations require substantial capital and we may be unable to obtain needed capital or financing on satisfactory terms or at all, which could limit our ability to grow.

Our capital budget for 2018 is estimated to be approximately $160.0 million. Since November 2014, we have funded our capital expenditures primarily with cash on hand, cash proceeds from the IPO, cash generated by

 

14


Table of Contents

operations and borrowings under our revolving credit facility (other than our acquisitions in June 2017, which we completed with the issuance of shares of our common stock). We may be unable to generate sufficient cash from operations and other capital resources to maintain planned or future levels of capital expenditures which, among other things, may prevent us from acquiring new equipment or properly maintaining our existing equipment. Further, any disruptions or continuing volatility in the global financial markets may lead to an increase in interest rates or a contraction in credit availability impacting our ability to finance our operations. This could put us at a competitive disadvantage or interfere with our growth plans. Further, our actual capital expenditures for 2018 or future years could exceed our capital expenditure budget. In the event our capital expenditure requirements at any time are greater than the amount we have available, we could be required to seek additional sources of capital, which may include debt financing, joint venture partnerships, sales of assets, offerings of debt or equity securities or other means. We may not be able to obtain any such alternative source of capital. We may be required to curtail or eliminate contemplated activities. If we can obtain alternative sources of capital, the terms of such alternative may not be favorable to us. In particular, the terms of any debt financing may include covenants that significantly restrict our operations. Our inability to grow as planned may reduce our chances of maintaining and improving profitability.

The growth of our business through acquisitions may expose us to various risks, including those relating to difficulties in identifying suitable, accretive acquisition opportunities and integrating businesses, assets and personnel, as well as difficulties in obtaining financing for targeted acquisitions and the potential for increased leverage or debt service requirements.

As a component of our business strategy, we have pursued and intend to continue to pursue selected, accretive acquisitions of complementary assets, businesses and technologies. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including:

 

    unanticipated costs and assumption of liabilities and exposure to unforeseen liabilities of acquired businesses, including but not limited to environmental liabilities;

 

    difficulties in integrating the operations and assets of the acquired business and the acquired personnel;

 

    limitations on our ability to properly assess and maintain an effective internal control environment over an acquired business, in order to comply with public reporting requirements;

 

    potential losses of key employees and customers of the acquired businesses;

 

    inability to commercially develop acquired technologies;

 

    risks of entering markets in which we have limited prior experience; and

 

    increases in our expenses and working capital requirements.

The process of integrating an acquired business may involve unforeseen costs and delays or other operational, technical and financial difficulties and may require a disproportionate amount of management attention and financial and other resources. Our failure to achieve consolidation savings, to incorporate the acquired businesses and assets into our existing operations successfully or to minimize any unforeseen operational difficulties could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, there is intense competition for acquisition opportunities in our industries. Competition for acquisitions may increase the cost of, or cause us to refrain from, completing acquisitions. In addition, we may not have sufficient capital resources to complete additional acquisitions. Historically, we have financed capital expenditures primarily with funding from the IPO, cash generated by operations, borrowings under our revolving credit facility and funding from our equity investors. We may incur substantial indebtedness to finance future acquisitions and also may issue equity, debt or convertible securities in connection with such acquisitions. Debt service requirements could represent a significant burden on our results of operations and financial condition and the issuance of additional equity or convertible securities could be dilutive to our existing stockholders. Furthermore, we may not be able to obtain additional financing on satisfactory terms. Even if we have access to

 

15


Table of Contents

the necessary capital, we may be unable to continue to identify additional suitable acquisition opportunities, negotiate acceptable terms or successfully acquire identified targets. Our ability to grow through acquisitions and manage growth will require us to continue to invest in operational, financial and management information systems and to attract, retain, motivate and effectively manage our employees. The inability to effectively manage the integration of acquisitions could reduce our focus on subsequent acquisitions and current operations, which, in turn, could negatively impact our earnings and growth. Our financial position and results of operations may fluctuate significantly from period to period, based on whether or not significant acquisitions are completed in particular periods.

We may have difficulty managing growth in our business, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

As a recently formed company, growth in accordance with our business plan, if achieved, could place a significant strain on our financial, technical, operational and management resources. As we expand the scope of our activities and our geographic coverage through both organic growth and acquisitions, there will be additional demands on our financial, technical, operational and management resources. The failure to continue to upgrade our technical, administrative, operating and financial control systems or the occurrences of unexpected expansion difficulties, including the failure to recruit and retain experienced managers, engineers and other professionals in the energy services industry, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to successfully or timely execute our business plan.

If our intended expansion of our business is not successful, our financial condition, profitability and results of operations could be adversely affected, and we may not achieve increases in revenue and profitability that we hope to realize.

A key element of our business strategy involves the expansion of our services, geographic presence and customer base. These aspects of our strategy are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including:

 

    an inability to retain or hire experienced crews and other personnel;

 

    a lack of customer demand for the services we intend to provide;

 

    an inability to secure necessary equipment, raw materials (particularly sand and other proppants) or technology to successfully execute our expansion plans;

 

    shortages of water used in our sand processing operations and our hydraulic fracturing operations;

 

    unanticipated delays that could limit or defer the provision of services by us and jeopardize our relationships with existing customers and adversely affect our ability to obtain new customers for such services; and

 

    competition from new and existing services providers.

Encountering any of these or any unforeseen problems in implementing our planned expansion could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and could prevent us from achieving the increases in revenues and profitability that we hope to realize.

Our liquidity needs could restrict our operations and make us more vulnerable to adverse economic conditions.

Our future indebtedness, whether incurred in connection with acquisitions, operations or otherwise, may adversely affect our operations and limit our growth, and we may have difficulty making debt service payments on such indebtedness as payments become due. Our level of indebtedness may affect our operations in several ways, including the following:

 

    increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

 

16


Table of Contents
    the covenants that are contained in the agreements governing our indebtedness could limit our ability to borrow funds, dispose of assets, pay dividends and make certain investments;

 

    our debt covenants could also affect our flexibility in planning for, and reacting to, changes in the economy and in our industries;

 

    any failure to comply with the financial or other covenants of our debt, including covenants that impose requirements to maintain certain financial ratios, could result in an event of default, which could result in some or all of our indebtedness becoming immediately due and payable;

 

    our level of debt could impair our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate purposes; and

 

    our business may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to enable us to meet our obligations under our indebtedness.

Our revolving credit facility imposes, and any of our future credit facilities may impose, restrictions on us that may affect our ability to successfully operate our business.

Our revolving credit facility limits, and any of our future credit facilities may limit, our ability to take various actions, such as:

 

    incurring additional indebtedness;

 

    paying dividends;

 

    creating certain additional liens on our assets;

 

    entering into sale and leaseback transactions;

 

    making investments;

 

    entering into transactions with affiliates;

 

    making material changes to the type of business we conduct or our business structure;

 

    making guarantees;

 

    entering into hedges;

 

    disposing of assets in excess of certain permitted amounts;

 

    merging or consolidating with other entities; and

 

    selling all or substantially all of our assets.

In addition, our revolving credit facility requires, and any future debt may require, us to maintain certain financial ratios and to satisfy certain financial conditions, which may require us to reduce our debt or take some other action in order to comply with each of them. These restrictions could also limit our ability to obtain future financings, make needed capital expenditures, withstand a downturn in our business or the economy in general, or otherwise conduct necessary corporate activities. We also may be prevented from taking advantage of business opportunities that arise because of the limitations imposed on us by the restrictive covenants under our revolving credit facility and any future debt agreements. If we fail to comply with the covenants in our existing revolving credit facility or any future debt agreements and such failure is not waived by the lender, a default may be declared by the lenders, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

Our revolving credit facility provides, and any future credit facilities may provide, for variable interest rates, which may increase or decrease our interest expense.

At March 31, 2018, we had outstanding borrowings under our credit facility of $39.0 million bearing a weighted average interest rate of 4.49%. At March 31, 2018, we had availability of $123.7 million under our

 

17


Table of Contents

revolving credit facility, after giving effect to $6.5 million of outstanding letters of credit. A 1% increase or decrease in the interest rate at that time would have increased or decreased our interest expense by approximately $0.4 million per year. We do not currently hedge our interest rate exposure.

We may not be able to provide services that meet the specific needs of oil and natural gas exploration and production companies or utilities at competitive prices.

The markets in which we operate are generally highly competitive and have relatively few barriers to entry. The principal competitive factors in our markets are price, product and service quality and availability, responsiveness, experience, technology, equipment quality and reputation for safety. We compete with large national and multi-national companies that have longer operating histories, greater financial, technical and other resources and greater name recognition than we do. Several of our competitors provide a broader array of services and have a stronger presence in more geographic markets. In addition, we compete with several smaller companies capable of competing effectively on a regional or local basis. Our competitors may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and services and changes in customer requirements. Some contracts are awarded on a bid basis, which further increases competition based on price. Pricing is often the primary factor in determining which qualified contractor is awarded a job. The competitive environment may be further intensified by mergers and acquisitions among oil and natural gas or utility companies or other events that have the effect of reducing the number of available customers. As a result of competition, we may lose market share or be unable to maintain or increase prices for our present services or to acquire additional business opportunities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

In addition, some exploration and production companies have begun performing hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling on their wells using their own equipment and personnel. Any increase in the development and utilization of in-house fracturing and directional drilling capabilities by our customers could decrease the demand for our oil and natural gas services and have a material adverse impact on our business.

Our operations are subject to hazards inherent in the oil and natural gas and energy infrastructure industries, which could expose us to substantial liability and cause us to lose customers and substantial revenue.

Our operations include hazards inherent in the oil and natural gas and energy infrastructure industries, such as equipment defects, vehicle accidents, fires, explosions, blowouts, surface cratering, uncontrollable flows of gas or well fluids, pipe or pipeline failures, abnormally pressured formations and various environmental hazards such as oil spills and releases of, and exposure to, hazardous substances. For example, our operations are subject to risks associated with hydraulic fracturing, including any mishandling, surface spillage or potential underground migration of fracturing fluids, including chemical additives. The occurrence of any of these events could result in substantial losses to us due to injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property, natural resources and equipment, pollution or other environmental damage, clean-up responsibilities, regulatory investigations and penalties, suspension of operations and repairs required to resume operations. The cost of managing such risks may be significant. The frequency and severity of such incidents will affect operating costs, insurability and relationships with customers, employees and regulators. In particular, our customers may elect not to purchase our services if they view our environmental or safety record as unacceptable, which could cause us to lose customers and substantial revenues. In addition, these risks may be greater for us than some of our competitors because we sometimes acquire companies that may not have allocated significant resources and management focus to safety and environmental matters and may have a poor environmental and safety record and associated possible exposure. Our insurance may not be adequate to cover all losses or liabilities we may suffer. Also, insurance may no longer be available to us or, if it is, its availability may be at premium levels that do not justify its purchase. The occurrence of a significant uninsured claim, a claim in excess of the insurance coverage limits maintained by us or a claim at a time when we are not able to obtain liability insurance could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct normal business operations and on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, we may not be able to secure additional insurance or

 

18


Table of Contents

bonding that might be required by new governmental regulations. This may cause us to restrict our operations, which might severely impact our financial position.

Since hydraulic fracturing activities are part of our operations, they are covered by our insurance against claims made for bodily injury, property damage and clean-up costs stemming from a sudden and accidental pollution event. However, we may not have coverage if we are unaware of the pollution event and unable to report the “occurrence” to our insurance company within the time frame required under our insurance policy. We have no coverage for gradual, long-term pollution events. In addition, these policies do not provide coverage for all liabilities, and the insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover claims that may arise, or we may not be able to maintain adequate insurance at rates we consider reasonable. A loss not fully covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

We are subject to extensive environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that may subject us to substantial liability or require us to take actions that will adversely affect our results of operations.

Our business is significantly affected by stringent and complex federal, state and local laws and regulations governing the discharge of substances into the environment or otherwise relating to environmental protection and health and safety matters. As part of our business, we handle, transport and dispose of a variety of fluids and substances, including hydraulic fracturing fluids which can contain hydrochloric acid and certain petrochemicals. This activity poses some risks of environmental liability, including leakage of hazardous substances from the wells to surface and subsurface soils, surface water or groundwater. We also handle, transport and store these substances. The handling, transportation, storage and disposal of these fluids are regulated by a number of laws, including: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Clean Water Act; the Safe Drinking Water Act; and other federal and state laws and regulations promulgated thereunder. The cost of compliance with these laws can be significant. Failure to properly handle, transport or dispose of these materials or otherwise conduct our operations in accordance with these and other environmental laws could expose us to substantial liability for administrative, civil and criminal penalties, cleanup and site restoration costs and liability associated with releases of such materials, damages to natural resources and other damages, as well as potentially impair our ability to conduct our operations. We could be exposed to liability for cleanup costs, natural resource damages and other damages under these and other environmental laws. Such liability is commonly on a strict, joint and several liability basis, without regard to fault. Liability may be imposed as a result of our conduct that was lawful at the time it occurred or the conduct of, or conditions caused by, prior operators or other third parties. Environmental laws and regulations have changed in the past, and they are likely to change in the future. If existing environmental requirements or enforcement policies change and become more stringent, we may be required to make significant unanticipated capital and operating expenditures.

Regulation of greenhouse gas emissions could result in increased operating costs and reduced demand for oil and natural gas.

In recent years, federal, state and local governments have taken steps to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, or GHGs. The Environmental Protection Agency, or the EPA, has finalized a series of GHG monitoring, reporting and emissions control rules for the oil and natural gas industry, and the U.S. Congress has, from time to time, considered adopting legislation to reduce emissions. Almost one-half of the states have already taken measures to reduce emissions of GHGs primarily through the development of GHG emission inventories and/or regional GHG cap-and-trade programs. While we are subject to certain federal GHG monitoring and reporting requirements, our operations currently are not adversely impacted by existing federal, state and local climate change initiatives. For a description of existing and proposed GHG rules and regulations, see “—Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing” included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporated herein by reference.

At the international level, in December 2015, the United States participated in the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP-21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris, France. The

 

19


Table of Contents

resulting Paris Agreement calls for the parties to undertake “ambitious efforts” to limit the average global temperature, and to conserve and enhance sinks and reservoirs of GHGs. The Agreement went into effect on November 4, 2016. The Agreement establishes a framework for the parties to cooperate and report actions to reduce GHG emissions. However, on June 1, 2017, President Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the Paris Agreement, and begin negotiations to either re-enter or negotiate an entirely new agreement with more favorable terms for the United States. The Paris Agreement sets forth a specific exit process, whereby a party may not provide notice of its withdrawal until three years from the effective date, with such withdrawal taking effect one year from such notice. It is not clear what steps the Trump Administration plans to take to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, whether a new agreement can be negotiated or what terms would be included in such an agreement. Furthermore, in response to the announcement, many state and local leaders have stated their intent to intensify efforts to uphold the commitments set forth in the international accord.

Although it is not possible at this time to predict how legislation or new regulations that may be adopted to address GHG emissions would impact our business, any such future laws and regulations imposing reporting obligations on, or limiting emissions of GHGs from, our equipment and operations could require us to incur costs to reduce emissions of GHGs associated with our operations. In addition, substantial limitations on GHG emissions could adversely affect demand for oil and natural gas and, consequently, the services we provide.

In addition, there have also been efforts in recent years to influence the investment community, including investment and certain sovereign wealth, pension and endowment funds promoting divestment of fossil fuel equities and pressuring lenders to limit funding to companies engaged in the extraction of fossil fuel reserves. Such environmental activism and initiatives aimed at limiting climate change and reducing air pollution could interfere with our business activities, operations and ability to access capital. Furthermore, claims have been made against certain energy companies alleging that GHG emissions from oil and natural gas operations constitute a public nuisance under federal and/or state common law. As a result, private individuals or public entities may seek to enforce environmental laws and regulations against us and could allege personal injury, property damage or other liabilities. While our business is not a party to any such litigation, we could be named in actions making similar allegations. An unfavorable ruling in any such case could significantly impact our operations and could have an adverse impact on our financial condition.

Moreover, climate change may cause more extreme weather conditions such as more intense hurricanes, thunderstorms, tornadoes and snow or ice storms, as well as rising sea levels and increased volatility in seasonal temperatures. Extreme weather conditions can interfere with our productivity and increase our costs and damage resulting from extreme weather may not be fully insured. However, at this time, we are unable to determine the extent to which climate change may lead to increased storm or weather hazards affecting our operations.

Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives relating to hydraulic fracturing could result in increased costs and additional operating restrictions or delays.

Our business is dependent on our ability to conduct hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling activities. Hydraulic fracturing is an important and common practice that is used to stimulate production of hydrocarbons, particularly natural gas, from tight formations, including shales. The process involves the injection of water, sand and chemicals (also called “proppants”) under pressure into formations to fracture the surrounding rock and stimulate production. There has been increasing public controversy regarding hydraulic fracturing with regard to the use of fracturing fluids, induced seismic activity, impacts on drinking water supplies, use of water and the potential for impacts to surface water, groundwater and the environment generally. A number of lawsuits and enforcement actions have been initiated across the country implicating hydraulic fracturing practices. The hydraulic fracturing process is typically regulated by state oil and natural gas commissions. However, legislation has been proposed in recent sessions of Congress to amend the federal Safe Drinking Water Act, or SDWA, to repeal the exemption for hydraulic fracturing from the definition of “underground injection,” to require federal permitting and regulatory control of hydraulic fracturing, and to require disclosure of the chemical constituents of

 

20


Table of Contents

the fluids used in the fracturing process. Furthermore, several federal agencies have asserted regulatory authority over certain aspects of the process.

In addition, several states and local jurisdictions in which we operate have adopted or are considering adopting regulations that could restrict or prohibit hydraulic fracturing in certain circumstances, impose more stringent operating standards and/or require the disclosure of the composition of hydraulic fracturing fluids.

If new laws or regulations are adopted that significantly restrict hydraulic fracturing, such laws could make it more difficult or costly for us to perform fracturing to stimulate production from tight formations as well as make it easier for third parties opposing the hydraulic fracturing process to initiate legal proceedings based on allegations that specific chemicals used in the fracturing process could adversely affect groundwater. In addition, if hydraulic fracturing is further regulated at the federal, state or local level, our fracturing activities could become subject to additional permitting and financial assurance requirements, more stringent construction specifications, increased monitoring, reporting and recordkeeping obligations and also to attendant permitting delays and potential increases in costs, which could reduce the demand for our services. Such legislative or regulatory changes could cause us to incur substantial compliance costs, and compliance or the consequences of any failure to comply by us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. At this time, it is not possible to estimate the impact on our business of newly enacted or potential federal, state or local laws governing hydraulic fracturing.

Our operations in our natural sand proppant services business are dependent on our rights and ability to mine our properties and on our having renewed or received the required permits and approvals from governmental authorities and other third parties.

We hold numerous governmental, environmental, mining and other permits, water rights and approvals authorizing operations at our production facilities. For our extraction and processing in Wisconsin, the permitting process is subject to federal, state and local authority. For example, at the federal level, a Mine Identification Request must be filed and obtained before mining commences. If wetlands are implicated, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wetland Permit is required. At the state level, a series of permits are required related to air quality, wetlands, water quality (waste water and storm water), grading, endangered species and archaeological assessments in addition to other permits depending upon site specific factors and operational detail. At the local level, zoning, building, storm water, erosion control, wellhead protection, road usage and access are all regulated and require permitting to some degree. A non-metallic mining reclamation permit is required. A decision by a governmental agency or other third party to deny or delay issuing a new or renewed permit or approval, or to revoke or substantially modify an existing permit or approval, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue operations.

Title to, and the area of, mineral properties and water rights may also be disputed. Mineral properties sometimes contain claims or transfer histories that examiners cannot verify. A successful claim that we do not have title to our property or lack appropriate water rights could cause us to lose any rights to explore, develop and extract minerals, without compensation for our prior expenditures relating to such property. Our business may suffer a material adverse effect in the event we have title deficiencies.

In some instances, we have received access rights or easements from third parties, which allow for a more efficient operation than would exist without the access or easement. A third party could take action to suspend the access or easement, and any such action could be materially adverse to our business, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Penalties, fines or sanctions that may be imposed by the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration could have a material adverse effect on our proppant production and sales business and our overall financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration, or MSHA, has primary regulatory jurisdiction over commercial silica operations, including quarries, surface mines, underground mines, and industrial mineral

 

21


Table of Contents

process facilities. In addition, MSHA representatives perform at least two annual inspections of our production facilities to ensure employee and general site safety. As a result of these and future inspections and alleged violations and potential violations, we and our suppliers could be subject to material fines, penalties or sanctions. Any of our production facilities or our suppliers’ mines could be subject to a temporary or extended shut down as a result of an alleged MSHA violation. Any such penalties, fines or sanctions could have a material adverse effect on our proppant production and sales business and our overall financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Increasing trucking regulations may increase our costs and negatively impact our results of operations.

In connection with our business operations, including the transportation and relocation of our energy service equipment and shipment of frac sand, we operate trucks and other heavy equipment. As such, we operate as a motor carrier in providing certain of our services and therefore are subject to regulation by the United States Department of Transportation and by various state agencies. These regulatory authorities exercise broad powers, governing activities such as the authorization to engage in motor carrier operations, driver licensing, insurance requirements, financial reporting and review of certain mergers, consolidations and acquisitions, and transportation of hazardous materials (HAZMAT). Our trucking operations are subject to possible regulatory and legislative changes that may increase our costs. Some of these possible changes include increasingly stringent environmental regulations, changes in the hours of service regulations which govern the amount of time a driver may drive or work in any specific period, onboard black box recorder device requirements or limits on vehicle weight and size. Interstate motor carrier operations are subject to safety requirements prescribed by the United States Department of Transportation. To a large degree, intrastate motor carrier operations are subject to state safety regulations that mirror federal regulations. Matters such as the weight and dimensions of equipment are also subject to federal and state regulations. From time to time, various legislative proposals are introduced, including proposals to increase federal, state, or local taxes, including taxes on motor fuels, which may increase our costs or adversely impact the recruitment of drivers. We cannot predict whether, or in what form, any increase in such taxes applicable to us will be enacted.

Certain motor vehicle operators require registration with the Department of Transportation. This registration requires an acceptable operating record. The Department of Transportation periodically conducts compliance reviews and may revoke registration privileges based on certain safety performance criteria that could result in a suspension of operations.

Restrictions on drilling activities intended to protect certain species of wildlife may adversely affect our ability to conduct mining or drilling activities in some of the areas where we operate.

Oil and natural gas operations in our operating areas can be adversely affected by seasonal or permanent restrictions on mining or drilling activities designed to protect various wildlife, which may limit our ability to operate in protected areas. Permanent restrictions imposed to protect endangered species could prohibit drilling in certain areas or require the implementation of expensive mitigation measures. Additionally, the designation of previously unprotected species as threatened or endangered in areas where we operate could result in increased costs arising from species protection measures. Restrictions on oil and natural gas operations to protect wildlife could reduce demand for our services.

Conservation measures and technological advances could reduce demand for oil and natural gas and our services.

Fuel conservation measures, alternative fuel requirements, increasing consumer demand for alternatives to oil and natural gas, technological advances in fuel economy and energy generation devices could reduce demand for oil and natural gas, resulting in reduced demand for oilfield services. The impact of the changing demand for oil and natural gas services and products may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

22


Table of Contents

Recently enacted U.S. tax legislation as well as compliance with and future changes in tax law and regulations may adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.

On December 22, 2017, the President signed into law Public Law No. 115-97, a comprehensive tax reform bill commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act, that significantly reforms the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. Among other changes, the Tax Act (i) permanently reduces the U.S. corporate income tax rate, (ii) provides for a transition tax (toll tax) on a one-time “deemed repatriation” of accumulated foreign earnings, (iii) repeals the corporate alternative minimum tax, (iv) imposes new limitations on the utilization of net operating losses, and (v) provides for more general changes to the taxation of corporations, including changes to the deductibility of interest expense, the adoption of a modified territorial tax system, and introducing certain anti-base erosion provisions. The Tax Act is complex and far-reaching, and we cannot predict with certainty the resulting impact its enactment will have on us. The ultimate impact of the Tax Act may differ from our estimates due to changes in interpretations and assumptions made by us as well as additional regulatory guidance that may be issued, and any such changes in our interpretations and assumptions could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow.

In addition, we are subject to tax liabilities imposed by multiple jurisdictions, including income taxes, indirect taxes (excise/duty, sales/use and value-added taxes), payroll taxes, franchise taxes, withholding taxes and ad valorem taxes. New tax laws and regulations and changes in existing tax laws and regulations are continuously being enacted or proposed that could result in increased expenditures for tax liabilities in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, many of these liabilities are subject to periodic audits by the respective taxing authority. Subsequent changes to our tax liabilities as a result of these audits may subject us to interest and penalties.

Losses and liabilities from uninsured or underinsured activities could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and operations.

The operational insurance coverage we maintain for our business may not fully insure us against all risks, either because insurance is not available or because of the high premium costs relative to perceived risk. Further, any insurance obtained by us may not be adequate to cover any losses or liabilities and this insurance may not continue to be available at all or on terms which are acceptable to us. Insurance rates have in the past been subject to wide fluctuation and changes in coverage could result in less coverage, increases in cost or higher deductibles and retentions. Liabilities for which we are not insured, or which exceed the policy limits of our applicable insurance, could have a material adverse effect on our business activities, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be subject to claims for personal injury and property damage, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

We operate with most of our customers under master service agreements, or MSAs. We endeavor to allocate potential liabilities and risks between the parties in the MSAs. Generally, under our MSAs, including those relating to our hydraulic fracturing services, we assume responsibility for, including control and removal of, pollution or contamination which originates above surface and originates from our equipment or services. Our customer assumes responsibility for, including control and removal of, all other pollution or contamination which may occur during operations, including that which may result from seepage or any other uncontrolled flow of drilling fluids. We may have liability in such cases if we are negligent or commit willful acts. Generally, our customers also agree to indemnify us against claims arising from their employees’ personal injury or death to the extent that, in the case of our hydraulic fracturing operations, their employees are injured or their properties are damaged by such operations, unless resulting from our gross negligence or willful misconduct. Similarly, we generally agree to indemnify our customers for liabilities arising from personal injury to or death of any of our employees, unless resulting from gross negligence or willful misconduct of the customer. In addition, our customers generally agree to indemnify us for loss or destruction of customer-owned property or equipment and

 

23


Table of Contents

in turn, we agree to indemnify our customers for loss or destruction of property or equipment we own. Losses due to catastrophic events, such as blowouts, are generally the responsibility of the customer. However, despite this general allocation of risk, we might not succeed in enforcing such contractual allocation, might incur an unforeseen liability falling outside the scope of such allocation or may be required to enter into an MSA with terms that vary from the above allocations of risk. As a result, we may incur substantial losses which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operation.

Loss of our information and computer systems could adversely affect our business.

We are heavily dependent on our information systems and computer based programs, including our well operations information and accounting data. If any of such programs or systems were to fail or create erroneous information in our hardware or software network infrastructure, whether due to cyberattack or otherwise, possible consequences include our loss of communication links and inability to automatically process commercial transactions or engage in similar automated or computerized business activities. Any such consequence could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are subject to cyber security risks. A cyber incident could occur and result in information theft, data corruption, operational disruption and/or financial loss.

The energy services industry has become increasingly dependent on digital technologies to conduct certain processing activities. For example, we depend on digital technologies to perform many of our services and process and record financial and operating data. At the same time, cyber incidents, including deliberate attacks or unintentional events, have increased. The U.S. government has issued public warnings that indicate that energy assets might be specific targets of cyber security threats. Our technologies, systems and networks, and those of our vendors, suppliers and other business partners, may become the target of cyberattacks or information security breaches that could result in the unauthorized release, gathering, monitoring, misuse, loss or destruction of proprietary and other information, or other disruption of our business operations. In addition, certain cyber incidents, such as surveillance, may remain undetected for an extended period. Our systems and insurance coverage for protecting against cyber security risks may not be sufficient. As cyber incidents continue to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures or to investigate and remediate any vulnerability to cyber incidents. Our insurance coverage for cyberattacks may not be sufficient to cover all the losses we may experience as a result of such cyberattacks.

Risks Inherent to Our Common Stock

Our two largest stockholders control a significant percentage of our common stock, and their interests may conflict with those of our other stockholders.

As of May 1, 2018, Wexford, through its affiliate MEH Sub LLC, and Gulfport beneficially owned approximately 56% and 25%, respectively, of our outstanding common stock. As a result, Wexford alone controls, and Gulfport can exercise significant influence, over matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, changes to our organizational documents and significant corporate transactions. Further, two individuals who serve as our directors are affiliates of Wexford or Gulfport. This concentration of ownership and relationships with Wexford and Gulfport make it unlikely that any other holder or group of holders of our common stock will be able to affect the way we are managed or the direction of our business. In addition, we have engaged, and expect to continue to engage, in related party transactions involving Wexford and Gulfport, and certain companies they control. The interests of Wexford and Gulfport with respect to matters potentially or actually involving or affecting us, such as services provided, future acquisitions, financings and other corporate opportunities, and attempts to acquire us, may conflict with the interests of our other stockholders. This concentrated ownership will make it impossible for another company to acquire us and for you to receive any related takeover premium for your shares unless these stockholders approve the acquisition.

 

24


Table of Contents

A significant reduction by Wexford or Gulfport of their ownership interests in us could adversely affect us.

We believe that Wexford’s and Gulfport’s substantial ownership interests in us provides them with an economic incentive to assist us to be successful. Neither Wexford nor Gulfport is subject to any obligation to maintain its ownership interest in us and may elect at any time to sell all or a substantial portion of or otherwise reduce its ownership interest in us. If Wexford or Gulfport sells all or a substantial portion of its ownership interest in us, it may have less incentive to assist in our success and its affiliates that serve as members of our board of directors may resign. Such actions could adversely affect our ability to successfully implement our business strategies which could adversely affect our cash flows or results of operations.

We incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, which may significantly affect our financial condition.

We completed our IPO in October 2016. As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. These include costs associated with our public company reporting requirements and corporate governance requirements, including requirements under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, as well as rules implemented by the SEC, The Nasdaq Global Select Market and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. These rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs and made some activities more time-consuming and costly. These rules and regulations may also make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We estimate that we incur approximately $2.5 million of incremental costs per year associated with being a publicly traded company; however, it is possible that our incremental costs of being a publicly traded company will be higher than we currently estimate. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur significant additional expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with those requirements applicable to companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. See “—Risks Related to Our Common Stock—We will be subject to certain requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we are unable to timely comply with Section 404 or if the costs related to compliance are significant, our profitability, stock price, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.”

For so long as we are an “emerging growth company” we will not be required to comply with certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act and, for as long as we remain an “emerging growth company,” intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an “emerging growth company” for up to five years following the completion of our IPO, although, if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of June 30 of any year, or we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period before the end of that five-year period, we would cease to be an “emerging growth company” as of the following December 31st. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we rely on certain exemptions available to “emerging growth companies.” If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our common stock price may be more volatile.

 

25


Table of Contents

We are subject to certain requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we are unable to timely comply with Section 404 or if the costs related to compliance are significant, our profitability, stock price, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

As of December 31, 2017, we are required to comply with certain provisions of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 requires that we document and test our internal control over financial reporting and issue management’s assessment of our internal control over financial reporting. Because we are an “emerging growth company,” however, our independent registered public accounting firm is not currently required to opine on those internal controls. During the course of our integration of our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify areas requiring improvement, and we may have to design enhanced processes and controls to address issues identified through this review. We believe that the out-of-pocket costs, the diversion of management’s attention from running the day-to-day operations and operational changes caused by the need to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could be significant. If the time and costs associated with such compliance exceed our current expectations, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

If we fail to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or if we or our auditors identify and report material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting, the accuracy and timeliness of the filing of our annual and quarterly reports may be materially adversely affected and could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. In addition, a material weakness in the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting could result in an increased chance of fraud and the loss of customers, reduce our ability to obtain financing and require additional expenditures to comply with these requirements, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Since we are a “controlled company” for purposes of The Nasdaq Global Select Market’s corporate governance requirements, our stockholders will not have, and may never have, the protections that these corporate governance requirements are intended to provide.

Since we are a “controlled company” for purposes of The Nasdaq Global Select Market’s corporate governance requirements, we are not required to comply with the provisions requiring that a majority of our directors be independent, the compensation of our executives be determined by independent directors or nominees for election to our board of directors be selected by independent directors. If we choose to take advantage of any or all of these exemptions, our stockholders may not have the protections that these rules are intended to provide.

The corporate opportunity provisions in our certificate of incorporation could enable Wexford, Gulfport or other affiliates of ours to benefit from corporate opportunities that might otherwise be available to us.

Subject to the limitations of applicable law, our certificate of incorporation, among other things:

 

    permits us to enter into transactions with entities in which one or more of our officers or directors are financially or otherwise interested;

 

    permits any of our stockholders, officers or directors to conduct business that competes with us and to make investments in any kind of property in which we may make investments; and

 

    provides that if any director or officer of one of our affiliates who is also one of our officers or directors becomes aware of a potential business opportunity, transaction or other matter (other than one expressly offered to that director or officer in writing solely in his or her capacity as our director or officer), that director or officer will have no duty to communicate or offer that opportunity to us, and will be permitted to communicate or offer that opportunity to such affiliates and that director or officer will not be deemed to have (i) acted in a manner inconsistent with his or her fiduciary or other duties to us regarding the opportunity or (ii) acted in bad faith or in a manner inconsistent with our best interests.

 

26


Table of Contents

These provisions create the possibility that a corporate opportunity that would otherwise be available to us may be used for the benefit of one of our affiliates.

We have engaged in transactions with our affiliates and expect to do so in the future. The terms of such transactions and the resolution of any conflicts that may arise may not always be in our or our common stockholders’ best interests.

We have engaged in transactions and expect to continue to engage in transactions with affiliated companies. As described in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in such reports, these transactions include, among others, agreements to provide our services and frac sand products to our affiliates and agreements pursuant to which our affiliates provide or will provide us with certain services, including administrative and advisory services and office space. Each of these entities is either controlled by or affiliated with Wexford or Gulfport, as the case may be, and the resolution of any conflicts that may arise in connection with such related party transactions, including pricing, duration or other terms of service, may not always be in our or our stockholders’ best interests because Wexford and/or Gulfport may have the ability to influence the outcome of these conflicts. For a discussion of potential conflicts, see “—Risks Inherent to Our Common Stock—Our two largest stockholders control a significant percentage of our common stock, and their interests may conflict with those of our other stockholders.”

Prior to the IPO, there was no public market for our common stock and if the price of our common stock fluctuates significantly, your investment could lose value.

Prior to the completion of the IPO in October 2016, there was no public market for our common stock. Although our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, an active public market for our common stock may not be maintained. If an active public market for our common stock is not maintained, the trading price and liquidity of our common stock will be materially and adversely affected. If there is a thin trading market or “float” for our common stock, the market price for our common stock may fluctuate significantly more than the stock market as a whole. Without a large float, our common stock is less liquid than the securities of companies with broader public ownership and, as a result, the trading prices of our common stock may be more volatile. In addition, in the absence of an active public trading market, investors may be unable to liquidate their investment in us. In addition, the stock market is subject to significant price and volume fluctuations, and the price of our common stock could fluctuate widely in response to several factors, including:

 

    our quarterly or annual operating results;

 

    changes in our earnings estimates;

 

    investment recommendations by securities analysts following our business or our industries;

 

    additions or departures of key personnel;

 

    changes in the business, earnings estimates or market perceptions of our competitors;

 

    our failure to achieve operating results consistent with securities analysts’ projections;

 

    changes in industry, general market or economic conditions; and

 

    announcements of legislative or regulatory change.

The stock market has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations in recent years that have significantly affected the quoted prices of the securities of many companies, including companies in our industries. The changes often appear to occur without regard to specific operating performance. The price of our common stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with our company and these fluctuations could materially reduce the price for our common stock.

 

27


Table of Contents

Wexford and Gulfport beneficially own a substantial amount of our common stock and may sell such common stock in the public or private markets. Sales of these shares of common stock or sales of substantial amounts of our common stock by other stockholders, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock.

As of May 1, 2018, Wexford and Gulfport beneficially owned 56% and 25% of our outstanding common stock, respectively. Sales of these shares of common stock or sales of substantial amounts of our common stock by other stockholders, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the price of our common stock to decline. In addition, the sale of these shares could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional common or preferred stock.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, the price of our stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover our company downgrades our stock or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.

We may issue preferred stock whose terms could adversely affect the voting power or value of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue, without the approval of our stockholders, one or more classes or series of preferred stock having such designations, preferences, limitations and relative rights, including preferences over our common stock respecting dividends and distributions, as our board of directors may determine. The terms of one or more classes or series of preferred stock could adversely impact the voting power or value of our common stock. For example, we might grant holders of preferred stock the right to elect some number of our directors in all events or on the happening of specified events or the right to veto specified transactions. Similarly, the repurchase or redemption rights or liquidation preferences we might assign to holders of preferred stock could affect the residual value of the common stock.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law make it more difficult to effect a change in control of the company, which could adversely affect the price of our common stock.

The existence of some provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware corporate law could delay or prevent a change in control of our company, even if that change would be beneficial to our stockholders. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may make acquiring control of our company difficult, including:

 

    provisions regulating the ability of our stockholders to nominate directors for election or to bring matters for action at annual meetings of our stockholders;

 

    limitations on the ability of our stockholders to call a special meeting and act by written consent;

 

    the ability of our board of directors to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws, and the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained for stockholders to amend our bylaws;

 

    the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained to remove directors;

 

    the requirement that the affirmative vote of holders representing at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock be obtained to amend our certificate of incorporation; and

 

28


Table of Contents
    the authorization given to our board of directors to issue and set the terms of preferred stock without the approval of our stockholders.

These provisions also could discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. As a result, these provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders, which may limit the price that investors are willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation designates courts in the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, subject to limited exceptions, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for:

 

    Any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;

 

    Any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders;

 

    Any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law; or

 

    Any other action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that if any action specified above (each is referred to herein as a covered proceeding), is filed in a court other than the specified Delaware courts without the approval of our board of directors (each is referred to herein as a foreign action), the claiming party will be deemed to have consented to (i) the personal jurisdiction of the specified Delaware courts in connection with any action brought in any such courts to enforce the exclusive forum provision described above and (ii) having service of process made upon such claiming party in any such enforcement action by service upon such claiming party’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such claiming party. These provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of our certificate of incorporation inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the covered proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future, and therefore only appreciation of the price of our common stock will provide a return to our stockholders.

We currently anticipate that we will retain all future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. We do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of cash dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. In addition, the terms of our revolving credit facility prohibit us from paying dividends and making other distributions. As a result, only appreciation of the price of our common stock, which may not occur, will provide a return to our stockholders.

 

29


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the common stock by us for general corporate purposes, including without limitation repaying or refinancing all or a portion of our existing short-term and long-term debt, making acquisitions of assets, businesses or securities, capital expenditures and for working capital. The precise amount and timing of the application of such proceeds will depend upon our funding requirements and the availability and cost of other capital. Pending any specific application of the net proceeds, we intend to invest our net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade securities, interest-bearing securities or guaranteed obligations of the United States or its agencies.

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, we will not receive any proceeds from the sale of common stock by the selling stockholders.

 

30


Table of Contents

DIVIDEND POLICY

Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. has never declared or paid any cash dividends on its capital stock. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, results of operations, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant. In addition, the terms of our existing outstanding borrowings restrict the payment of dividends to the holders of our common stock and any other equity holders.

 

31


Table of Contents

SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

The shares of our common stock covered by this prospectus that may be sold from time to time in the secondary offering are being offered by the selling stockholders listed in the table below. This prospectus will not cover subsequent sales of common stock purchased from the selling stockholders named in this prospectus.

On October 12, 2016, prior to the completion of the IPO, we issued (i) 20,615,700 shares of our common stock to Mammoth Energy Holdings LLC, which we refer to as Mammoth Holdings, an affiliate of Wexford Capital LP, which we refer to as Wexford, (ii) 9,150,000 shares of our common stock to Gulfport Energy Corporation, which we refer to as Gulfport, and (iii) 234,300 shares of our common stock to Rhino Exploration LLC, which we refer to as Rhino, in connection with their contribution of their respective membership interests in Mammoth Energy Partners LLC to us. Of these shares, Mammoth Holdings, Gulfport and Rhino sold 171,797, 76,250 and 1,953 shares of our common stock, respectively, in the IPO. Following such sale in the IPO, Mammoth Holdings, Gulfport and Rhino held 20,443,903, 9,073,750 and 232,347 shares of our common stock, respectively. In June 2017, all of the shares held by Mammoth Holdings were transferred to MEH Sub LLC, which we refer to as MEH Sub, an affiliate of Wexford, in an internal reorganization of certain Wexford affiliates. Each of Wexford and Gulfport also received 9,580 restricted stock units, or RSUs, assigned to it by its director designees, of which (i) 4,445 RSUs have vested, (ii) 2,913 RSUs will vest on the earlier of June 8, 2018 and the date of our 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and (iii) 2,222 will vest on October 19, 2018. Further, on June 5, 2017, we issued an aggregate of (i) 4,565,416 shares of our common stock to MEH Sub and certain other affiliates of Wexford (all of which shares are currently held by MEH Sub following an internal reorganization of certain Wexford affiliates), (ii) 2,098,137 shares of our common stock to Gulfport and (iii) 336,447 shares of our common stock to Rhino as consideration for our acquisitions of all outstanding membership interests in Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC (which owns Taylor Frac), Stingray Energy Services LLC and Stingray Cementing LLC. Rhino subsequently sold an aggregate of 464,694 shares of our common stock and, as a result, holds 104,100 shares of our common stock.

In connection with the closing of the IPO on October 19, 2016, we entered into two registration rights agreements, one with Mammoth Holdings, and the other with Rhino, pursuant to which Mammoth Holdings and its affiliates, including MEH Sub, have certain demand and “piggyback” registration rights and Rhino has certain “piggyback” registration rights with respect to shares of common stock owned by such entities or their affiliates. Also, in connection with the IPO on October 19, 2016, we entered into an investor rights agreement with Gulfport in which Gulfport was granted certain demand and “piggyback” registration rights, certain information rights and the right to nominate one of our directors for so long as Gulfport owns 10% or more of our outstanding common stock. Such nominee, if elected to our board of directors, is also entitled to serve on each committee of the board of directors if he or she satisfies the independence and other requirements for service on the applicable committee. So long as Gulfport has the right to designate a nominee to our board of directors and there is no Gulfport nominee actually serving as one of our directors, Gulfport has the right to appoint one individual as an advisor to the board of directors who shall be entitled to attend board and committee meetings. One of our directors, Paul Heerwagen, is Gulfport’s nominee pursuant to the investor rights agreement. Additional information regarding our material relationships and related party transactions with the selling stockholders is set forth under the heading “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions” in our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, filed by us with the SEC on April 25, 2018 as may be updated or supplemented by subsequent filings we make with the SEC, and the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, which information is incorporated herein by reference.

We have prepared this prospectus and the registration statement of which it is a part to fulfill our registration requirements with respect to an aggregate of 36,304,466 shares of our common stock beneficially owned by the selling stockholders. Pursuant to the registration rights agreements and the investor rights agreement, we will pay all expenses relating to the registration and offering of these shares, except that the selling stockholders will pay any underwriting fees, discounts or commissions. Pursuant to the terms of the registration rights agreements and

 

32


Table of Contents

the investor rights agreement, we agreed to indemnify the selling stockholders against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and the selling stockholders have agreed to indemnify us against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, which may arise from any written information furnished to us by the selling stockholders specifically for use in this prospectus.

No offer or sale under this prospectus may be made by a stockholder unless that stockholder is listed in the table below, in a supplement to this prospectus or in an amendment to the related registration statement that has become effective. We may supplement or amend this prospectus to include additional selling stockholders upon provision of all required information to us and subject to the terms of these registration rights agreements and investor rights agreement.

The following table sets forth the maximum number of shares of our common stock that may be sold by each selling stockholder. We cannot predict when or in what amount the selling stockholders may sell any of the shares offered by the selling stockholders in this prospectus, if at all. The table (or the introductory paragraphs to the table, as applicable) also sets forth the name of each selling stockholder, the nature of any position, office or other material relationship which such selling stockholder has had, within the past three years, with us or with any of our predecessors or affiliates, and the number of shares of our common stock to be owned by such selling stockholder after completion of the offering. We are filing the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part pursuant to contractual obligations with the selling stockholders, as described in more detail above.

We prepared the table based on information provided to us by the selling stockholders. We have not sought to independently verify such information. Additionally, the selling stockholders may have sold or transferred some or all of its shares of our common stock in transactions exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act since the date on which the information in the table was provided to us. Other information about the selling stockholders may also change over time.

Except as otherwise indicated, we believe that each of the stockholders named in this table has sole voting and dispositive power with respect to the shares indicated as beneficially owned.

 

     Common Stock
Beneficially Owned
Prior to Offering(1)
    Shares of Common Stock
Being Offered Hereby
     Shares of Common Stock
Beneficially Owned
After Completion of the
Offering
 

Name of Beneficial Owner

   Number      Percentage     Number      Number      Percentage  

Selling Stockholders:

             

MEH Sub LLC(2)

     25,018,899        56.0     25,018,899        —          —  

Gulfport Energy Corporation(3)

     11,181,467        25.0     11,181,467        —          —  

Rhino Exploration LLC(4)

     104,100        *       104,100        —          —  

 

* Less than 1%.
(1) Percentage of beneficial ownership is based upon 44,714,296 shares of common stock outstanding as of May 1, 2018. For purposes of this table, a person or group of persons is deemed to have “beneficial ownership” of any shares of common stock which such person has the right to acquire within 60 days. For purposes of computing the percentage of outstanding shares of common stock held by each person or group of persons named above, any security that such person or group of persons has the right to acquire within 60 days is deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership for such person or persons, but is not deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person.
(2)

Wexford is the manager of MEH Sub LLC, which is one of the selling stockholders in this offering. The number of shares of common stock that may be sold by MEH Sub pursuant to this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement includes 9,580 RSUs granted under our equity incentive plan, which were assigned to Wexford by Marc McCarthy, our Chairman of the Board, under the terms of his employment

 

33


Table of Contents
  with Wexford, of which (i) 4,445 RSUs have vested, (ii) 2,913 RSUs will vest on the earlier of June 8, 2018 and the date of our 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and (iii) 2,222 will vest on October 19, 2018. As manager of MEH Sub, Wexford has the exclusive authority to, among other things, purchase, hold and dispose of its assets. Wexford may, by reason of its status as the manager of MEH Sub, be deemed to beneficially own the interest in the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Wexford GP LLC, which is referred to as Wexford GP, may, by reason of its status as general partner of Wexford, be deemed to beneficially own the interest in the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Each of Charles E. Davidson and Joseph M. Jacobs may, by reason of his status as a controlling person of Wexford GP, be deemed to beneficially own the interests in the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Each of Charles E. Davidson, Joseph M. Jacobs, Wexford GP and Wexford share the power to vote and to dispose of shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub. Each of Messrs. Davidson and Jacobs disclaims beneficial ownership of the shares of common stock owned by MEH Sub and Wexford, except to the extent of their respective personal ownership interests in MEH Sub or any members of MEH Sub. Wexford has offices at 411 West Putnam Ave, Greenwich Connecticut 06830 and 777 South Flagler Drive, Suite 602 East, West Palm Beach Florida 33401.
(3) The number of shares of common stock that may be sold by Gulfport pursuant to this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement includes 9,580 RSUs granted under our equity incentive plan and were assigned to Gulfport by its director designees to our board of directors under the terms of their respective employment with Gulfport. Of these 9,580 RSUs, (i) 4,445 have vested, (ii) 2,913 will vest on the earlier of June 8, 2018 and the date of our 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and (iii) 2,222 will vest on October 19, 2018. Gulfport’s address is 3001 Quail Springs Parkway, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73134.
(4) Rhino’s address is 424 Lewis Hargett Circle, Suite 250, Lexington, Kentucky.

Each of the selling stockholders named in this prospectus may be deemed to be an underwriter within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act.

 

34


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF OUR COMMON STOCK

The following description of our common stock, certificate of incorporation and our bylaws are summaries thereof and are qualified by reference to our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws, as amended and restated, copies of which have been filed with the SEC as exhibits and are incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 20,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. Our common stock has been approved for listing on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TUSK.”

Common Stock

Holders of shares of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Shares of common stock do not have cumulative voting rights, which means that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voting for the election of the board of directors can elect all the directors to be elected at that time and, in such event, the holders of the remaining shares will be unable to elect any directors to be elected at that time. Our certificate of incorporation denies stockholders any preemptive rights to acquire or subscribe for any stock, obligation, warrant or other securities of ours. Holders of shares of our common stock have no redemption or conversion rights nor are they entitled to the benefits of any sinking fund provisions.

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of shares of common stock shall be entitled to receive, pro rata, all the remaining assets of our company available for distribution to our stockholders after payment of our debts and after there shall have been paid to or set aside for the holders of capital stock ranking senior to common stock in respect of rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up the full preferential amounts to which they are respectively entitled.

Holders of record of shares of common stock are entitled to receive dividends when and if declared by the board of directors out of any assets legally available for such dividends, subject to both the rights of all outstanding shares of capital stock ranking senior to the common stock in respect of dividends and to any dividend restrictions contained in debt agreements. All outstanding shares of common stock and any shares sold and issued by us pursuant to this prospectus will be fully paid and nonassessable.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized to issue up to 20,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and designate:

 

    the distinctive serial designation and number of shares of the series;

 

    the voting powers and the right, if any, to elect a director or directors;

 

    the terms of office of any directors the holders of preferred shares are entitled to elect;

 

    the dividend rights, if any;

 

    the terms of redemption and the amount of, and provisions regarding, any sinking fund for the purchase or redemption thereof;

 

    the liquidation preferences and the amounts payable on dissolution or liquidation;

 

    the terms and conditions under which shares of the series may or shall be converted into any other series or class of stock or debt of the corporation; and

 

    any other terms or provisions which the board of directors is legally authorized to fix or alter.

 

35


Table of Contents

We do not need stockholder approval to issue or fix the terms of the preferred stock. The actual effect of the authorization of the preferred stock upon your rights as holders of common stock is unknown until our board of directors determines the specific rights of owners of any series of preferred stock. Depending upon the rights granted to any series of preferred stock, your voting power, liquidation preference or other rights could be adversely affected. Preferred stock may be issued in acquisitions or for other corporate purposes. Issuance in connection with a stockholder rights plan or other takeover defense could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or of discouraging a third party from acquiring, control of our company. We have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Related Party Transactions and Corporate Opportunities

Subject to the limitations of applicable law, our certificate of incorporation, among other things:

 

    permits us to enter into transactions with entities in which one or more of our officers or directors are financially or otherwise interested so long as it has been approved by our board of directors;

 

    permits any of our stockholders, officers or directors to conduct business that competes with us and to make investments in any kind of property in which we may make investments; and

 

    provides that if any director or officer of one of our affiliates who is also one of our officers or directors becomes aware of a potential business opportunity, transaction or other matter (other than one expressly offered to that director or officer in writing solely in his or her capacity as our director or officer), that director or officer will have no duty to communicate or offer that opportunity to us, and will be permitted to communicate or offer that opportunity to such affiliates and that director or officer will not be deemed to have (i) acted in a manner inconsistent with his or her fiduciary or other duties to us regarding the opportunity or (ii) acted in bad faith or in a manner inconsistent with our best interests.

Anti-takeover Effects of Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Our Bylaws

Some provisions of our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws contain provisions that could make it more difficult to acquire us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, or to remove our incumbent officers and directors. These provisions, summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging such proposals because negotiation of such proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Undesignated preferred stock. The ability to authorize and issue undesignated preferred stock may enable our board of directors to render more difficult or discourage an attempt to change control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, the board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in our best interest, the board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group.

Stockholder meetings. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.

Requirements for advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals. Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors.

 

36


Table of Contents

Stockholder action by written consent. Our bylaws provide that, except as may otherwise be provided with respect to the rights of the holders of preferred stock, no action that is required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders at any annual or special meeting may be effected by written consent of stockholders in lieu of a meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that prior to the date that Wexford ceases to beneficially own (directly or indirectly) more than 50% of our outstanding shares of common stock, any action required or permitted to be taken by stockholders at any meeting of stockholders may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, is signed by holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum voting power that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted. This provision, which may not be amended except by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, makes it difficult for stockholders to initiate or effect an action by written consent that is opposed by our board.

Amendment of the bylaws. Under Delaware law, the power to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws is conferred upon the stockholders. A corporation may, however, in its certificate of incorporation also confer upon the board of directors the power to adopt, amend or repeal its bylaws. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws grant our board the power to adopt, amend and repeal our bylaws at any regular or special meeting of the board on the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office. Our stockholders may adopt, amend or repeal our bylaws but only at any regular or special meeting of stockholders by an affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

Removal of Director. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that members of our board of directors may only be removed by the affirmative vote of holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

Amendment of the Certificate of Incorporation. Our certificate of incorporation provides that, in addition to any other vote that may be required by law or any preferred stock designation, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, is required to amend, alter or repeal, or adopt any provision as part of our certificate of incorporation inconsistent with the provisions of our certificate of incorporation dealing with distributions on our common stock, related party transactions, our board of directors, our bylaws, meetings of our stockholders or amendment of our certificate of incorporation.

The provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions which stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

Exclusive Forum

Our certificate of incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that derivative actions brought in our name, actions against directors, officers and other employees for breach of a fiduciary duty and other similar actions may be brought only in specified courts in the State of Delaware. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors, officers and other employees. See “Risk Factors—Risks Inherent to Our Common Stock—Our certificate of incorporation designates courts in the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.”

 

37


Table of Contents

Transfer Agent and Registrar

Computershare Trust Company, NA. is the transfer agent and registrar for our common stock.

Listing

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TUSK.”

 

38


Table of Contents

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

The following is a general discussion of material U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder (as defined below). This discussion deals only with common stock purchased in this offering that is held as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code (generally, property held for investment), by a non-U.S. holder. Except as modified for estate tax purposes, the term “non-U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner of our common stock that is not a “U.S. person” or an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income and estate tax purposes. A U.S. person is any of the following:

 

    an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

    a corporation (including any entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

    an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

    trust, if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust, or if it has a valid election in effect under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations to be treated as a U.S. person.

An individual may generally be treated as a resident of the United States in any calendar year for U.S. federal income tax purposes, by, among other ways, being present in the United States for at least 31 days in that calendar year and for an aggregate of at least 183 days during a three-year period ending in the current calendar year. For purposes of the 183-day calculation, all of the days present in the current year, one-third of the days present in the immediately preceding year and one-sixth of the days present in the second preceding year are counted. Residents are taxed for U.S. federal income tax purposes as if they were U.S. citizens.

This discussion is based upon provisions of the Code, and Treasury Regulations, administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as of the date hereof. Those authorities may be changed, perhaps retroactively, so as to result in U.S. federal income and estate tax consequences different from those discussed below. No ruling has been or will be sought from the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, with respect to the matters discussed below, and there can be no assurance the IRS will not take a contrary position regarding the tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership or disposition of our common stock, or that such contrary position would not be sustained by a court. This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income and estate taxation, including the impact of the unearned income Medicare contribution tax and does not deal with other U.S. federal tax laws (such as gift tax laws) or non-U.S., state, local or other tax considerations that may be relevant to non-U.S. holders in light of their personal circumstances. In addition, this discussion does not address tax considerations applicable to investors that may be subject to special treatment under the U.S. federal income tax laws, such as (without limitation):

 

    certain former U.S. citizens or residents;

 

    shareholders that hold our common stock as part of a straddle, constructive sale transaction, synthetic security, hedge, conversion transaction or other integrated investment or risk reduction transaction;

 

    shareholders that acquired our common stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation or through a tax-qualified retirement plan;

 

    shareholders that are partnerships or entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes or other pass- through entities or owners thereof;

 

    shareholders that own, or are deemed to own, more than five percent (5%) of our outstanding common stock (except to the extent specifically set forth below);

 

39


Table of Contents
    shareholders subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

    financial institutions, banks and thrifts;

 

    insurance companies;

 

    tax-exempt entities;

 

    real estate investment trusts;

 

    “controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies” or corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

    broker-dealers or dealers in securities or foreign currencies; and

 

    traders in securities that use a mark-to-market method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If a partnership (including an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds our common stock, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner generally will depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership (including an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holding our common stock, you should consult your tax advisor.

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY AND SHOULD NOT BE VIEWED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS CONSIDERING THE PURCHASE OF OUR COMMON STOCK SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS REGARDING THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATION AS WELL AS THE APPLICABILITY AND EFFECT OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAX LAWS OR TAX TREATIES AND ANY OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS.

Distributions on Common Stock

We do not expect to pay any cash distributions on our common stock in the foreseeable future. However, in the event we do make such cash distributions, these distributions generally will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If any such distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a non-taxable return of capital to the extent of the non-U.S. holder’s tax basis in our common stock and thereafter as capital gain from the sale or exchange of such common stock. See “—Gain on Disposition of Common Stock” below. Dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder of our common stock that are not effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States will be subject to U.S. withholding tax at a 30% rate, or if an income tax treaty applies, a lower rate specified by the treaty. In order to receive a reduced treaty rate, a non-U.S. holder must provide to us or our withholding agent IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or applicable substitute or successor form for either) properly certifying eligibility for the reduced rate. Non-U.S. holders that do not timely provide us or our withholding agent with the required certification, but that qualify for a reduced treaty rate, may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under an applicable income tax treaty.

Dividends that are effectively connected with a non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States and, if an income tax treaty so requires, are attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the United States, are taxed on a net income basis at the regular graduated rates and in the manner applicable to U.S. persons. In that case, we or our withholding agent will not have to withhold U.S. federal withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder complies with applicable certification and disclosure requirements (which may generally be met by providing an IRS Form W-8ECI). In addition, a “branch profits tax” may be

 

40


Table of Contents

imposed at a 30% rate (or a lower rate specified under an applicable income tax treaty) on a foreign corporation’s effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year, as adjusted for certain items. Non-U.S. holders should consult any applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

Gain on Disposition of Common Stock

Subject to the discussion below regarding backup withholding, a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain recognized on a disposition of our common stock unless:

 

    the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States and, if an income tax treaty applies, is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the United States, in which case, the gain will be taxed on a net income basis at the U.S. federal income tax rates and in the manner applicable to U.S. persons, and if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, the branch profits tax described above may also apply;

 

    the non-U.S. holder is an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and meets other requirements, in which case, the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a flat 30% tax on the gain derived from the disposition (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses, provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses; or

 

    we are or have been a “United States real property holding corporation,” or USRPHC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes at any time during the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock.

Generally, a corporation is a USRPHC if the fair market value of its United States real property interests equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests and its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. We believe we currently are a USRPHC. If we are or become a USRPHC, a non-U.S. holder nonetheless will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax or withholding in respect of any gain realized on a sale or other disposition of our common stock so long as (i) our common stock is “regularly traded on an established securities market” for U.S. federal income tax purposes and (ii) such non-U.S. holder does not actually or constructively own, at any time during the applicable period described in the third bullet point, above, more than 5% of our outstanding common stock. We expect our common stock to be “regularly traded” on an established securities market, although we cannot guarantee it will be so traded. Accordingly, a non-U.S. holder who actually or constructively owns more than 5% of our common stock would be subject to U.S. federal income tax and withholding in respect of any gain realized on any sale or other disposition of common stock (taxed in the same manner as gain that is effectively connected income, except that the branch profits tax would not apply). Non-U.S. holders should consult their own advisor about the consequences that could result if we are, or become, a USRPHC.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding Tax

Dividends paid to you will generally be subject to information reporting and may be subject to U.S. backup withholding. You will be exempt from backup withholding if you properly provide a Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI certifying under penalties of perjury that you are a non-U.S. holder or otherwise meet documentary evidence requirements for establishing that you are a non-U.S. holder, or you otherwise establish an exemption. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividends and the tax withheld with respect to such dividends also may be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which you reside.

The gross proceeds from the disposition of our common stock may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding. If you receive payments of the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock to or through a U.S. office of a broker, the payment will be subject to both U.S. backup withholding and information reporting unless you properly provide a Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI certifying under penalties of perjury that

 

41


Table of Contents

you are a non-U.S. person (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that you are a U.S. person) or you otherwise establish an exemption. If you sell your common stock outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker and the sales proceeds are paid to you outside the United States, then the U.S. backup withholding and information reporting requirements generally will not apply to that payment. However, U.S. information reporting, but not backup withholding, will generally apply to a payment of sales proceeds, even if that payment is made outside the United States, if you sell your common stock through a non-U.S. office of a broker that has certain relationships with the United States unless the broker has documentary evidence in its files that you are a non-U.S. person and certain other conditions are met, or you otherwise establish an exemption.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. You may obtain a refund or credit of any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules that exceed your U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Federal Estate Tax

Our common stock that is owned (or treated as owned) by an individual who is not a citizen or resident of the United States (as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) at the time of death will be included in such individual’s gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, unless an applicable estate tax treaty provides otherwise, and, therefore, may be subject to U.S. federal estate tax.

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act

Under the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, a 30% withholding tax will generally apply to dividends on, or gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, common stock paid to a foreign financial institution unless the foreign financial institution (i) enters into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury to, among other things, undertake to identify accounts held by certain U.S. persons or U.S.-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent it from complying with these reporting and other requirements, (ii) is resident in a country that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement with the United States in relation to such withholding and information reporting and the financial entity complies with related information reporting requirements of such country, or (iii) qualifies for an exemption from these rules. A foreign financial institution generally is a foreign entity that (i) accepts deposits in the ordinary course of a banking or similar business, (ii) as a substantial portion of its business, holds financial assets for the benefit of one or more other persons, or (iii) is an investment entity that, in general, primarily conducts as a business on behalf of customers trading in certain financial instruments, individual or collective portfolio management or otherwise investing, administering, or managing funds, money or certain financial assets on behalf of other persons. In addition, FATCA generally imposes a 30% withholding tax on the same types of payments to a non-financial foreign entity unless the entity certifies that it does not have any substantial U.S. owners, furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner, or otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. In either case, such payments would include U.S.-source dividends and the gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock that can produce U.S.-source dividends. FATCA’s withholding obligations generally will apply to payments of dividends on our common stock, and to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock made on or after January 1, 2019.

The final Treasury regulations and subsequent guidance provide detailed guidance regarding the reporting, withholding and other obligations under FATCA. Investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible impact of the FATCA rules on their investment in our common stock, including, without limitation, the process and deadlines for meeting the applicable requirements to prevent the imposition of the 30% withholding tax under FATCA.

 

42


Table of Contents

THE SUMMARY OF MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME AND ESTATE TAX CONSIDERATIONS ABOVE IS INCLUDED FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. POTENTIAL PURCHASERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK ARE URGED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS TO DETERMINE THE U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL AND NON-U.S. TAX CONSIDERATIONS OF PURCHASING, OWNING AND DISPOSING OF OUR COMMON STOCK.

 

43


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

Initial Offering and Sale of Common Stock

We and the selling stockholders, which as used in this prospectus includes donees, pledges, transferees or other successors in interest selling common stock received after the date of this prospectus from a selling stockholder as a gift, pledge, distribution or other transfer, may, from time to time, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of any or all of the common stock offered by this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement on any stock exchange, market or trading facility on which such common stock is traded or in private transactions. These dispositions may be at fixed prices, at prevailing market prices at the time of sale, at prices related to the prevailing market price, at varying prices determined at the time of sale or at negotiated prices.

We and the selling stockholders may use any one or more of the following methods when disposing of the offered common stock:

 

    ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker-dealer solicits purchasers;

 

    block trades in which the broker-dealer will attempt to sell the common stock as agent, but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

    purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;

 

    an exchange distribution in accordance with the rules of the applicable exchange;

 

    privately negotiated transactions;

 

    sales deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act, which includes sales made directly on or through the Nasdaq Global Select Market or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange;

 

    short sales effected after the date of this prospectus;

 

    through the writing or settlement of options or other hedging transactions, whether through an options exchange or otherwise;

 

    broker-dealers may agree to sell a specified number of such common stock at a stipulated price per share;

 

    a combination of any such methods of sale; and

 

    any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law.

The selling stockholders also may resell all or a portion of the common stock in open market transactions in reliance upon Rule 144 under the Securities Act.

If underwriters are used to sell the common stock, we and the selling stockholder, if any, will enter into an underwriting agreement or similar agreement with them at the time of the sale to them. In that event, underwriters may receive compensation from us and the selling stockholder, if any, in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions and may also receive commissions from purchasers of the common stock for whom they may act as agent.

To the extent required by applicable law, a prospectus supplement relating to the common stock will set forth:

 

    the offering terms, including the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents;

 

    the number or amount of the common stock involved, the purchase price of such common stock and the proceeds to us and the selling stockholder, if any, from such sale;

 

44


Table of Contents
    any underwriting discounts, concessions, commissions and other items constituting compensation to underwriters, dealers or agents;

 

    any initial public offering price;

 

    any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid by underwriters or dealers to other dealers; and

 

    any securities exchanges on which the common stock may be listed.

The common stock may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more of such firms. Unless otherwise set forth in an applicable prospectus supplement, the obligations of underwriters or dealers to purchase the common stock will be subject to certain conditions precedent and the underwriters or dealers will be obligated to purchase all the securities if any are purchased. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid by underwriters or dealers to other dealers may be changed from time to time.

The selling stockholders and any underwriters, dealers or agents that are involved in selling the common stock may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act in connection with such sales. In such event, any commissions received by them and any profit on the resale of the common stock purchased by them may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts under the Securities Act.

In order to comply with the securities laws of some states, the shares sold in those jurisdictions may only be sold through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in some states, the shares may not be sold unless the shares have been registered or qualified for sale in that state or an exemption from registration or qualification is available and is complied with.

The common stock may be sold directly by us, a selling stockholder or through agents designated by us from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of the common stock in respect of which this prospectus and a prospectus supplement is delivered will be named, and any commissions payable by us or the selling stockholder to such agent will be set forth, in any required prospectus supplement. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

If so indicated in the prospectus supplement, we or a selling stockholder will authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers from certain specified institutions to purchase common stock from us or the selling stockholder at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. Such contracts will be subject to any conditions set forth in the prospectus supplement and the prospectus supplement will set forth the commissions payable for solicitation of such contracts. The underwriters and other persons soliciting such contracts will have no responsibility for the validity or performance of any such contracts.

Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled under agreements entered into with us or a selling stockholder to be indemnified by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution by us to payments which they may be required to make. The terms and conditions of such indemnification will be described in an applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us or the selling stockholder in the ordinary course of business.

Any underwriters to whom common stock is sold by us or a selling stockholder for public offering and sale may make a market in such common stock, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for any common stock.

 

45


Table of Contents

Certain persons participating in any offering of common stock may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the common stock offered. In connection with any such offering, the underwriters, dealers or agents, as the case may be, may purchase and sell common stock in the open market. These transactions may include overallotment and stabilizing transactions and purchases to cover syndicate short positions created in connection with the offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of certain bids or purchases for the purpose of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock and syndicate short positions involve the sale by the underwriters, dealers or agents, as the case may be, of a greater number of common stock than they are required to purchase from us in the offering. The underwriters may also impose a penalty bid, whereby selling concessions allowed to syndicate members or other broker-dealers for the common stock sold for their account may be reclaimed by the syndicate if such common stock is repurchased by the syndicate in stabilizing or covering transactions. These activities may stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the common stock, which may be higher than the price that might otherwise prevail in the open market, and if commenced, may be discontinued at any time. These transactions may be effected on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise. These activities will be described in more detail in the sections entitled “Plan of Distribution” or “Underwriting” in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

46


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the common stock to be offered hereby offered by us and/or the selling stockholders will be passed upon by Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP. If legal matters in connection with offerings made by this prospectus are passed on by counsel for the underwriters, dealers or agents, if any, that counsel will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The audited consolidated financial statements of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement have been so incorporated by reference in reliance upon the report of Grant Thornton LLP, independent registered public accountants, upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

The audited historical consolidated financial statements of Sturgeon Acquisitions LLC and its subsidiaries included in Exhibit 99.2 of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc.’s current report on Form 8-K filed on October 27, 2017 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

The information incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Mammoth Energy Services, Inc. concerning estimates of our proven mineral reserves was derived from the report of John T. Boyd Company, independent mining engineers and geologists. All of such information has been included herein in reliance upon the authority of such firm as an expert in such matters.

 

47


Table of Contents

GLOSSARY OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS AND ELECTRICAL INFRASTRUCTURE TERMS

The following is a glossary of certain oil and natural gas industry terms used or incorporated by reference in this prospectus:

Blowout. An uncontrolled flow of reservoir fluids into the wellbore, and sometimes catastrophically to the surface. A blowout may consist of salt water, oil, natural gas or a mixture of these. Blowouts can occur in all types of exploration and production operations, not just during drilling operations. If reservoir fluids flow into another formation and do not flow to the surface, the result is called an underground blowout. If the well experiencing a blowout has significant open-hole intervals, it is possible that the well will bridge over (or seal itself with rock fragments from collapsing formations) down-hole and intervention efforts will be averted.

Bottomhole assembly. The lower portion of the drillstring, consisting of (from the bottom up in a vertical well) the bit, bit sub, a mud motor (in certain cases), stabilizers, drill collar, heavy-weight drillpipe, jarring devices (“jars”) and crossovers for various threadforms. The bottomhole assembly must provide force for the bit to break the rock (weight on bit), survive a hostile mechanical environment and provide the driller with directional control of the well. Oftentimes the assembly includes a mud motor, directional drilling and measuring equipment, measurements-while-drilling tools, logging-while-drilling tools and other specialized devices.

Cementing. To prepare and pump cement into place in a wellbore.

Coiled tubing. A long, continuous length of pipe wound on a spool. The pipe is straightened prior to pushing into a wellbore and rewound to coil the pipe back onto the transport and storage spool. Depending on the pipe diameter (1 in. to 4 1/2 in.) and the spool size, coiled tubing can range from 2,000 ft. to 20,000 ft. (610 m to 6,096 m) or greater length.

Completion. A generic term used to describe the assembly of down-hole tubulars and equipment required to enable safe and efficient production from an oil or gas well. The point at which the completion process begins may depend on the type and design of the well.

Directional drilling. The intentional deviation of a wellbore from the path it would naturally take. This is accomplished through the use of whipstocks, bottomhole assembly (BHA) configurations, instruments to measure the path of the wellbore in three-dimensional space, data links to communicate measurements taken down-hole to the surface, mud motors and special BHA components and drill bits, including rotary steerable systems, and drill bits. The directional driller also exploits drilling parameters such as weight on bit and rotary speed to deflect the bit away from the axis of the existing wellbore. In some cases, such as drilling steeply dipping formations or unpredictable deviation in conventional drilling operations, directional-drilling techniques may be employed to ensure that the hole is drilled vertically. While many techniques can accomplish this, the general concept is simple: point the bit in the direction that one wants to drill. The most common way is through the use of a bend near the bit in a down-hole steerable mud motor. The bend points the bit in a direction different from the axis of the wellbore when the entire drillstring is not rotating. By pumping mud through the mud motor, the bit turns while the drillstring does not rotate, allowing the bit to drill in the direction it points. When a particular wellbore direction is achieved, that direction may be maintained by rotating the entire drillstring (including the bent section) so that the bit does not drill in a single direction off the wellbore axis, but instead sweeps around and its net direction coincides with the existing wellbore. Rotary steerable tools allow steering while rotating, usually with higher rates of penetration and ultimately smoother boreholes.

Down-hole. Pertaining to or in the wellbore (as opposed to being on the surface).

Down-hole motor. A drilling motor located in the drill string above the drilling bit powered by the flow of drilling mud. Down-hole motors are used to increase the speed and efficiency of the drill bit or can be used to steer the bit in directional drilling operations. Drilling motors have become very popular because of horizontal and directional drilling applications and the increase of day rates for drilling rigs.

 

48


Table of Contents

Drilling rig. The machine used to drill a wellbore.

Drillpipe or Drill pipe. Tubular steel conduit fitted with special threaded ends called tool joints. The drillpipe connects the rig surface equipment with the bottomhole assembly and the bit, both to pump drilling fluid to the bit and to be able to raise, lower and rotate the bottomhole assembly and bit.

Drillstring or Drill string. The combination of the drillpipe, the bottomhole assembly and any other tools used to make the drill bit turn at the bottom of the wellbore.

Horizontal drilling. A subset of the more general term “directional drilling,” used where the departure of the wellbore from vertical exceeds about 80 degrees. Note that some horizontal wells are designed such that after reaching true 90-degree horizontal, the wellbore may actually start drilling upward. In such cases, the angle past 90 degrees is continued, as in 95 degrees, rather than reporting it as deviation from vertical, which would then be 85 degrees. Because a horizontal well typically penetrates a greater length of the reservoir, it can offer significant production improvement over a vertical well.

Hydraulic fracturing. A stimulation treatment routinely performed on oil and gas wells in low permeability reservoirs. Specially engineered fluids are pumped at high pressure and rate into the reservoir interval to be treated, causing a vertical fracture to open. The wings of the fracture extend away from the wellbore in opposing directions according to the natural stresses within the formation. Proppant, such as grains of sand of a particular size, is mixed with the treatment fluid to keep the fracture open when the treatment is complete. Hydraulic fracturing creates high-conductivity communication with a large area of formation and bypasses any damage that may exist in the near-wellbore area.

Hydrocarbon. A naturally occurring organic compound comprising hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons can be as simple as methane, but many are highly complex molecules, and can occur as gases, liquids or solids. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. The most common hydrocarbons are natural gas, oil and coal.

Mud motors. A positive displacement drilling motor that uses hydraulic horsepower of the drilling fluid to drive the drill bit. Mud motors are used extensively in directional drilling operations.

Natural gas liquids. Components of natural gas that are liquid at surface in field facilities or in gas processing plants. Natural gas liquids can be classified according to their vapor pressures as low (condensate), intermediate (natural gasoline) and high (liquefied petroleum gas) vapor pressure.

Nitrogen pumping unit. A high-pressure pump or compressor unit capable of delivering high-purity nitrogen gas for use in oil or gas wells. Two basic types of units are commonly available: a nitrogen converter unit that pumps liquid nitrogen at high pressure through a heat exchanger or converter to deliver high-pressure gas at ambient temperature, and a nitrogen generator unit that compresses and separates air to provide a supply of high pressure nitrogen gas.

Plugging. The process of permanently closing oil and gas wells no longer capable of producing in economic quantities. Plugging work can be performed with a well servicing rig along with wireline and cementing equipment; however, this service is typically provided by companies that specialize in plugging work.

Plug. A down-hole packer assembly used in a well to seal off or isolate a particular formation for testing, acidizing, cementing, etc.; also a type of plug used to seal off a well temporarily while the wellhead is removed.

Pressure pumping. Services that include the pumping of liquids under pressure.

Producing formation. An underground rock formation from which oil, natural gas or water is produced. Any porous rock will contain fluids of some sort, and all rocks at considerable distance below the Earth’s surface will initially be under pressure, often related to the hydrostatic column of ground waters above the reservoir. To produce, rocks must also have permeability, or the capacity to permit fluids to flow through them.

 

49


Table of Contents

Proppant. Sized particles mixed with fracturing fluid to hold fractures open after a hydraulic fracturing treatment. In addition to naturally occurring sand grains, man-made or specially engineered proppants, such as resin-coated sand or high-strength ceramic materials like sintered bauxite, may also be used. Proppant materials are carefully sorted for size and sphericity to provide an efficient conduit for production of fluid from the reservoir to the wellbore.

Resource play. Accumulation of hydrocarbons known to exist over a large area.

Shale. A fine-grained, fissile, sedimentary rock formed by consolidation of clay- and silt-sized particles into thin, relatively impermeable layers.

Tight oil. Conventional oil that is found within reservoirs with very low permeability. The oil contained within these reservoir rocks typically will not flow to the wellbore at economic rates without assistance from technologically advanced drilling and completion processes. Commonly, horizontal drilling coupled with multistage fracturing is used to access these difficult to produce reservoirs.

Tight sands. A type of unconventional tight reservoir. Tight reservoirs are those which have low permeability, often quantified as less than 0.1 millidarcies.

Tubulars. A generic term pertaining to any type of oilfield pipe, such as drillpipe, drill collars, pup joints, casing, production tubing and pipeline.

Unconventional resource. An umbrella term for oil and natural gas that is produced by means that do not meet the criteria for conventional production. What has qualified as “unconventional” at any particular time is a complex function of resource characteristics, the available exploration and production technologies, the economic environment, and the scale, frequency and duration of production from the resource. Perceptions of these factors inevitably change over time and often differ among users of the term. At present, the term is used in reference to oil and gas resources whose porosity, permeability, fluid trapping mechanism, or other characteristics differ from conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Coalbed methane, gas hydrates, shale gas, fractured reservoirs and tight gas sands are considered unconventional resources.

Wellbore. The physical conduit from surface into the hydrocarbon reservoir.

Well stimulation. A treatment performed to restore or enhance the productivity of a well. Stimulation treatments fall into two main groups, hydraulic fracturing treatments and matrix treatments. Fracturing treatments are performed above the fracture pressure of the reservoir formation and create a highly conductive flow path between the reservoir and the wellbore. Matrix treatments are performed below the reservoir fracture pressure and generally are designed to restore the natural permeability of the reservoir following damage to the near wellbore area. Stimulation in shale gas reservoirs typically takes the form of hydraulic fracturing treatments.

Wireline. A general term used to describe well-intervention operations conducted using single-strand or multi-strand wire or cable for intervention in oil or gas wells. Although applied inconsistently, the term commonly is used in association with electric logging and cables incorporating electrical conductors.

Workover. The process of performing major maintenance or remedial treatments on an oil or gas well. In many cases, workover implies the removal and replacement of the production tubing string after the well has been killed and a workover rig has been placed on location. Through-tubing workover operations, using coiled tubing, snubbing or slickline equipment, are routinely conducted to complete treatments or well service activities that avoid a full workover where the tubing is removed. This operation saves considerable time and expense.

The following is a glossary of certain electrical infrastructure industry terms used or incorporated by reference in this prospectus:

Distribution. The distribution of electricity from the transmission system to individual customers.

 

50


Table of Contents

Substation. A part of an electrical transmission and distribution system that transforms voltage from high to low, or the reverse.

Transmission. The movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electric substation.

 

51


Table of Contents

 

 

 

LOGO

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

June     , 2018