|3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
|Revenue from Contract with Customer [Abstract]
The Company’s primary revenue streams include infrastructure services, well completion services, natural sand proppant services, drilling services and other services, which includes aviation, equipment rentals, remote accommodations and equipment manufacturing. See Note 19 for the Company’s revenue disaggregated by type.
Certain of the Company’s customer contracts include provisions entitling the Company to a termination penalty when the customer invokes its contractual right to terminate prior to the contract’s nominal end date. The termination penalties in the customer contracts vary, but are generally considered substantive for accounting purposes and create enforceable rights and obligations throughout the stated duration of the contract. The Company accounts for a contract cancellation as a contract modification in the period in which the customer invokes the termination provision. The determination of the contract termination penalty is based on the terms stated in the related customer agreement. As of the modification date, the Company updates its estimate of the transaction price using the expected value method, subject to constraints, and recognizes the amount over the remaining performance period.
Well Completion Services
Well completion services are typically provided based upon a purchase order, contract or on a spot market basis. Services are provided on a day rate, contracted or hourly basis. Generally, the Company accounts for well completion services as a single performance obligation satisfied over time. In certain circumstances, the Company supplies proppant that is utilized for pressure pumping as part of the agreement with the customer. The Company accounts for these pressure pumping agreements as multiple performance obligations satisfied over time. Jobs for these services are typically short-term in nature and range from a few hours to multiple days. Generally, revenue is recognized over time upon the completion of each segment of work based upon a completed field ticket, which includes the charges for the services performed, mobilization of the equipment to the location and personnel.
Additional revenue is generated through labor charges and the sale of consumable supplies that are incidental to the service being performed. Such amounts are recognized ratably over the period during which the corresponding goods and services are consumed.
Infrastructure services are typically provided pursuant to master service agreements, repair and maintenance contracts or fixed price and non-fixed price installation contracts. Pricing under these contracts may be unit priced, cost-plus/hourly (or time and materials basis) or fixed price (or lump sum basis). Generally, the Company accounts for infrastructure services as a single performance obligation satisfied over time. In certain circumstances, the Company supplies materials that are utilized during the jobs as part of the agreement with the customer. The Company accounts for these infrastructure agreements as multiple performance obligations satisfied over time. Revenue is recognized over time as work progresses based on the days completed or as the contract is completed. Under certain customer contracts in our infrastructure services segment, the Company warranties equipment and labor performed for a specified period following substantial completion of the work.
Natural Sand Proppant Services
The Company sells natural sand proppant through sand supply agreements with its customers. Under these agreements, sand is typically sold at a flat rate per ton or a flat rate per ton with an index-based adjustment. The Company recognizes revenue at the point in time when the customer obtains legal title to the product, which may occur at the production facility, rail origin or at the destination terminal.
Certain of the Company’s sand supply agreements contain a minimum volume commitment related to sand purchases whereby the Company charges a shortfall payment if the customer fails to meet the required minimum volume commitment. These agreements may also contain make-up provisions whereby shortfall payments can be applied in future periods against purchased volumes exceeding the minimum volume commitment. If a make-up right exists, the Company has future performance obligations to deliver excess volumes of product in subsequent months. In accordance with ASC 606, if the customer fails to meet the minimum volume commitment, the Company will assess whether it expects the customer to fulfill its unmet commitment during the contractually specified make-up period based on discussions with the customer and management’s knowledge of the business. If the Company expects the customer will make-up deficient volumes in future periods, revenue related to shortfall payments will be deferred and recognized on the earlier of the date on which the customer utilizes make-up volumes or the likelihood that the customer will exercise its right to make-up deficient volumes becomes remote. If the Company does not expect the customer will make-up deficient volumes in future periods, the breakage model will be applied and revenue related to shortfall payments will be recognized when the model indicates the customer’s inability to take delivery of excess volumes. The Company did not recognize any shortfall revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2023 or 2022 and did not have any deferred revenue related to shortfall payments.
In certain of the Company’s sand supply agreements, the customer obtains control of the product when it is loaded into rail cars and the customer reimburses the Company for all freight charges incurred. The Company has elected to account for shipping and handling as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer the sand. If revenue is recognized for the related product before the shipping and handling activities occur, the Company accrues the related costs of those shipping and handling activities.
Contract drilling services were provided under daywork contracts. Directional drilling services, including motor rentals, are provided on a day rate or hourly basis, and revenue is recognized as work progresses. Performance obligations are satisfied over time as the work progresses based on the measure of output. Mobilization revenue and costs were recognized over the days of actual drilling. As a result of market conditions, the Company temporarily shut down its contract land drilling operations beginning in December 2019 and rig hauling operations beginning in April 2020.
The Company also provided aviation, equipment rentals, remote accommodations and equipment manufacturing, which are reported under other services. The Company’s other services are typically provided based upon a purchase order, contract or on a spot market basis. Services are provided on a day rate, contracted or hourly basis. Performance obligations for these services are satisfied over time and revenue is recognized as the work progresses based on the measure of output. Jobs for these services are typically short-term in nature and range from a few hours to multiple days.
The Company does not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for (i) contracts with an original expected length of one year or less and (ii) contracts in which variable consideration is allocated entirely to a wholly unsatisfied performance obligation or to a wholly unsatisfied distinct good or service that forms part of a single performance obligation.
Following is a rollforward of the Company’s contract liabilities (in thousands):
The Company did not have any contract assets as of March 31, 2023 or December 31, 2022.
Performance ObligationsRevenue recognized in the current period from performance obligations satisfied in previous periods was a nominal amount for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022. As of March 31, 2023, the Company had unsatisfied performance obligations totaling $19.3 million, which will be recognized over the next 22 months.